Social determinants of health – Availability of resources to meet daily needs (e.g., safe housing and local food markets), Access to educational, economic, and job opportunities, Access to health care services, Quality of education and job training, Availability of community-based resources in support of community living and opportunities for recreational and leisure-time activities, Transportation options, Public safety, Social support, Social norms and attitudes (e.g., discrimination, racism, and distrust of government), Exposure to crime, violence, and social disorder (e.g., presence of trash and lack of cooperation in a community), Socioeconomic conditions (e.g., concentrated poverty and the stressful conditions that accompany it), Residential segregation, Language/Literacy, Access to mass media and emerging technologies (e.g., cell phones, the Internet, and social media), and Culture (HealthyPeople 2020, n.d.) 1-1-These social determinants contribute to the development of illness by the fact that not all people have the knowledge or resources to stay or get healthy. The communicable disease chain involves a susceptible host, etiologic agent, reservoir, port of exit, method of transmission, and portal of entry (Chain of infection, n.d.) A step a nurse can take to break the chain would be hand washing to break the mode of transmission. Having patients wear a mask with cough is another to stop the transmission. (Maurer, 2013)
2-Social determinants of health are conditions in the environments in which people are born, live, learn, work, play, worship, and age that affect a wide range of health, functioning, and quality-of-life outcomes and risks. Conditions (e.g.,as social, economic and physical) in these various environments and settings (e.g., school, church, workplace, and neighborhood) have been referred to as “place”. In addition to the more material attributes of “place,” the aptterns of social engagement and sense of secutity and well-being are also affected by where people live. Resouces that enhance quality of life can have significant influence on population health outcomes. Examples of these would include safe and affordable housing, access to education, public safety, availability of health foods, local emergency/health services, and environments free of life-threatening toxins.
The social determinants that make people healthy or contribute to illness is income or social status since higher income and social status are linked to better health. The greater the gap between the richest and poorest people, the greater the differences in health. Second, is the physical environment such as having access to safe water and clean air, healthy workplaces, safe houses, communities and road all contribute to good health. Third, genetics since inheretence plays a part in determining lifespan, healthiness and the likelihood of developing certain illnesses. Personal behavior and coping skills, balanced eating, keeping active, smoking, drinking, and how we deal with life stresses and challenges all affect health. Fourth, would be having access to health services that prevent and treat disease influences one’s health. Also gender plays a role in illness since both men and women suffer from different types of diseases at different ages.
Communicable disease chain is a continuous sequence of a disease process that starts when a causative agent leaves its reservoir or host through a portal of exit, is conveyed by some mode of transmission and enters through an appropriate portal of entry to infect a susceptible host (CDC, 2012)
Steps nurses can take to stop germs from spreading is by cleaning your hands frequently, staying up to date on your vaccines(including flu shot), covering coughs and sneezes and staying home when sick, following the rules for standard and contact isolation, using personal protective equipment the right way, cleaning and disinfecting the environment, sterilizing medical instruments and equipment, following safe injection practices, and using antibiotics wisely to prevent antibiotic resistance.
3 So true, I just watched a co-worker grieve the loss of her grandfather. He passed away from cancer. The interesting part is that he was just two years away from recieving medicare in which he could have recieved the cancer treatment he needed to maybe beat it or live a little while longer. But, because he did not qualify yet and he did not have insurance that would cover it or enough savings to help he did not recieve treatment
4-you did a great job on malnutrition issue on global health. Many children and adults are suffering from malnutrition from either too much foods that are not balanced and too little foods that cannot be filled the hungry stomach of children’s and adults’ in many nations worldwide and there is no room to consider about malnutrition or multivitamins and minerals. Malnutrition converys not only lacking of foods but also well balanced food that human body need to intake to maintain health, and proper physical development.
I once saw a documentary film about nutrition and showed a rural village in China, women did not eat fresh vegetables and fruits and their primary diets was flour and grains. They don’t have vegetables and fruits due to the weather and land consition. Lacking of folic acid from their diets, these women gave birth to babies born with spina bifida, 8 out of 10 babies. Especially, women have to consume a healthy diet when they want to get pregnant for the healthy future.
5-Obesity is worldwide. Most of the times it is caused by poor eating habits and financial constraints. For instance, in America, the system is made in such a way that people are always on the go.Most people do not have time to cook so they eat fast food eneryday. It is easy and much cheaper to buy. I think the population, mostly the low income needs to be educated on the importance of eating healthy.
6-Malnutrition is a worldwide problem which affects mainly children and is responsible for approximately one third of death in children. Malnutritions occurs when basic nutritional needs are not met. Vitamins, calories, proteins and healthy fats are vital for proper growth and development to occur in utero and in the growth and development years. It is responsible for low intelligence, stunted growth, and retardation (Maurer & Smith, 2013). In some of the developing countries micronutrient malnutrition is prevalent. These micronutrients are needed in small amounts and must come from the food that we consume. Micronutrients are also needed for proper development and disease prevention. These nutrients consist of iron, iodine, vitamin A, folate and zinc. Although many of the health issues related to the micronutrient deficiencies mainly affect the young in developing countries many of these issues are also seen in developed countries. The effect these health issues can have on the health system results in enormous health cost ranging from procedures that are needed and the illnesses that are related to underweight and neurological deficits. Children with stunted growth have diffficulty learning and require extra money and resources for repeated grades. The learning deficits go on to affect these kids throughout their lives with increased stress, low self esteem, low paying jobs, and inadequate to no access to healthcare. The Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) (2012) states that the adults that were malnourished as children earn less than 20% than those who weren’t. Countries can see a loss of their Gross Domestic product (GDP) from iron, iodine, and zinc deficiencies. Nurses in the hospital setting also see many admissions that are directly related to malnutrition in the older population too. Poor wound healing, muscle atrophy leading to falls, and weak immune systems are all related to poor nutrition and repeated hospital admissions.
Inspite of many organizations that help with feeding the hungry, malnutrition is prevalent around the world. I think healthcare delivery systems need to be more aggressive in addressing malnutrition in their communities. According to feeding America (2016) one in seven people are hungry and find it difficult to get enough food to eat. Being a powerful and one of the wealthiest country in the world and yet the people are found hungry. It is hard for me to believe this as it would be for anyone else as well. Health facilities need to conduct a survey in their communities to learn more about the people that are in need of food. I think addressing hunger at home first is a priority and then we can assist globally.
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