# Scientific Method and Calculations

Unit 1: Scientific Method and Calculations

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The steps of the scientific method are: observation, hypothesis, experiment, results, and theory. Take a real world scenario and apply the scientific method, being sure to detail the controls on your experiment. Describe a result that would confirm your hypothesis.

Unit 1: Atoms and Atomic Structure

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There are a number of elements (minerals) that are important to human nutrition. These include sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, magnesium, iron, copper, manganese, iodine, molybdenum, and selenium. There are many additional elements that are useful in industry.

Using the periodic table of elements, pick one of these elements and determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons found in this atom. Be sure to check that you are not doing an element that another person has already posted.

Check out the interactive periodic table in the Week 1 Lecture for more information on how to calculate the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons. It is recommended to print a copy of the table from the interactive periodic table.

Next write your own by giving the number of protons and neutrons in an element without giving the name or chemical symbol of the element. Each of your classmates will do the same, and then you can solve one of your peers questions.

Due May 10th

Unit 2: Chemical Names

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Sulfates, sulfites, nitrates, nitriteshow does one keep all of these similar but different names straight?

For this discussion, we will be practicing naming ionic and covalent compounds as well as polyatomic ions. To begin, give the chemical formula for each of the following: A covalent compound containing no more than two types of elements, an ionic compound no more than two types of elements, and an ionic compound containing a polyatomic. Be sure that these compounds are valid (for example, the charges balance out in the ionic compound) and that the subscripts do not exceed 10.

After you have done this, reply to one of your peer’s posts and name their compounds based on their chemical formulas. Using the rules we learned in class, walk us through each step.

## Unit 2: Chemical Structures

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The electron configuration of an atom determines the number of electrons available to participate in bonding with another atom. One method of depicting the valence electrons that an atom has is through the Lewis structure. To begin this discussion, pick an element from the periodic table of elements. Identify the valence electrons and the orbitals in which they reside. You can use the textbook and lecture. Pick a peers post and answer each of the following questions:

1. How many unpaired electrons are present?

2. How many covalent bonds could this element make?

3. Could this element participate in a double or triple bond? Why or why not?

Due May 18th

Unit 3: Chemical Reactions and Equations

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Find an example of an important chemical reaction used in industry or clinical setting and do the following:

1. Determine the number of atoms for each compounds in the reactants.

2. Determine the number of atoms for each compounds in the products.

3. Given this determination, is the reaction balanced?

4. If the reaction is not balanced, what is the balanced chemical reaction?

Unit 3: Molarity and Solution Calculations

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Professionals in a scientific laboratory and in the healthcare field need to accurately prepare solutions for a number of reasons. If you wear contacts, you probably use a saline solution to rinse your contacts.

What solutions do you use at work? How would you calculate the amount of solute to the solvent to prepare this solution?

If you do not wear contacts but you use or make cleaning solutions for your housework, how would you accurately prepare solutions to clean?

What solutions do you use that use percent concentration?

After you have responded to the topic above, pick a combination of one of the following molecules, one mass quantity, and one total solution volume from this table.

Molecule

Mass

Volume

NaCl

2 g

150 ml

CaBr2

6 g

3 L

Li3N

1 g

CaO

7 g

14 L

For example, one possible combination would be 2 grams of NaCl in 500 ml of solution. Then, give each of the following for your unique combinationbeing sure to show all of your work:

1. %mass/volume concentration

2. Molarity

3. Osmolarity

Please see the section Osmolarity in weekly lesson to help you in this topic.

May 24th

## Unit 4: Gases

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This week, we are studying the . In this discussion, you will be trying your hand at applying one of the to a real world situation. Consider a situation that involves an ideal gas law and discuss how you would apply your chosen ideal gas law to the situation. Generate an ideal gas law question based on this situation.

Solve one of your peer’s ideal gas law equations. If you feel that there is not enough information given in their problem to solve the problem, discuss what additional information you would need and why.

## Unit 4: Acids and Bases

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While we often do not realize it, acidic and basic solutions are a part of our daily lives.

I would like each of us to go home and pick a solution in your home, work, or even outside (be sure to check the label to make sure that whatever you are measuring is nonhazardous and water based). Some possible solutions are shampoos, beverages, still water in your backyard, contact solution, ect. Before moving on, post your predictions and why you believe your solution to be acidic or basic. Depending on your instructor, you will then post on one of the following:

If I have provided each of you with a strip of pH paper, perform your experiment by using your pH paper to measure the pH of your solution. After you have performedyour experiment, report your findings back to the group and be sure to classify your example as an acidic or basic solution as well as what compound or compounds in your solution you believe cause the solution to be basic or acidic and why.

If you were not provided with pH strip, look online to determine if your solution is acidic or basic. Explain what compound or compounds in your solution you believe cause the solution to be basic or acidic and why?

Due May 30th

## Unit 5: Organic Molecules 1

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Choose a compound that is classified as an ether, aldehyde, ketone, ester, or alcohol. Report on how this compound is used. Can you find a way in which the structure of your molecule influences it’s function?

Next, write the condensed structural formula of a simple molecule with an ether, aldehyde, ketone, ester, or alcohol functional group for your peers to name. Then, determine the name of one of the molecules that your peers posted, walking us through the naming process.

## Unit 5: Organic Molecules 2

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A growing concern in agricultural and food chemistry is the presence of residues in food. We use many forms of organic chemicals in agriculture and food chemistry and there is growing concern as to how safe these materials are. Choose an organic chemical used in agricultural of food chemistry and report on the functional groups contained in your compound, the uses of the compound, and the safety of that compound.

Next, comment on one of your peers postings to discuss whether you believe the benefits of using their compound outweigh the risks.

Due June 7th

## Unit 6: Energy

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As a society, our demand for energy is constantly increasing even as our supply of natural fuels is decreasing at a dramatic rate and our pollution levels are rising. These factors are fueling our search for sources of alternative energy. Pick an energy source we are using or want to use in the future. For this energy source, report on the benefits and drawbacks as well as if you believe that this source will be viable in the next 20 years.

Be sure to comment on your peers postings to weigh in and, as always, cite your sources.

## Unit 6: Nuclear Chemistry

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Radiation can be found in different forms. Electromagnetic radiation is something that we are exposed to every day. Ionizing radiation can cause damage to living tissue. Pick source of radiation that you are have been or expect to be exposed to in the future. What is the source of this radiation? Look at a peers posting and determine if their source of radiation is expected to be dangerous and, if so, what could you do to protect yourself from it?

Next, there has been some debate as to if cell phone radiation is dangerous. Let’s practice our research skills and weigh in on this topic, being sure to cite our sources.

Due June 15th

## Unit 7: Carbohydrate, Lipid, and Protein Structures

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Choose an example of a specific carbohydrate, lipid, and/or protein found in your home. What is the role of this biomolecule in your body? What would happen if you did not have this biomolecule? What is the source of this biomolecule?

## Unit 7: Nucleic Acid Structure and Flow of Genetic Information

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In the news, we often hear examples of how DNA or the transfer of genetic information impacted someones life. Examples range from DNA fingerprinting to genetically engineered organisms to an individual with a genetic disease. In each of these scenarios, the structure of nucleic acids and the flow of genetic information through mRNA to protein are involved. Describe an example of the how the structure of DNA or the transfer of genetic information impacted someones life.

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