Explain at least two types of cellular damage that are largely responsible for progression from reversible to irreversible cellular injury.

Peer Response 1:

Lauren Koscal posted

Two types of cellular damage responsible for progression from reversible to irreversible cellular injury are hypoxic injury and chemical injury.. Hypoxia is the single most common cause of cellular injury (McCance et al., 2019) Hypoxia is the result of insufficient oxygen supply and is primarily caused by a decrease in red blood cell production, loss of hemoglobin function, poisoning of cytochromes, as well as respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases. Ischemia, which the most common cause of hypoxia, is the result of reduction in blood supply. Reduction in oxygen supply to tissues ultimately leads to tissue death if not treated within a timely manner.  “Time is muscle” is a well known phrase for severity and extent of myocardial ischemic injury resulting from coronary occlusion could be altered with adequate, timely intervention (Abreu, 2019)

Another form of cellular injury is the result of chemical injury. Chemical injury occurs when cellular response pathways are disturbed caused by oxidative stress, heat shock response, DNA damage response, ER stress, mental stress, and inflammation. Examples of chemicals are arsenic and cyanide which cause rapid cell death. Abuse of some over-the-counter medications, abuse of heroin, morphine, opioids and other substances can cause cellular injury, and can potentially lead to death (McCance et al., 2019)


Abreu L. M. (2019). Time is Muscle. Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia, 112(4), 408–409.


McCance, K.L. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children.

(8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Peer Response 2:

Tiffany Spitzner posted

Hyperplasia is an increase/overgrowth of cells in tissues and organs,second to increased cellular division. This occurs from an increased production of cells because it experienced an abnormal exposure of stressors/injury that occurred for a prolonged period. (Brashers, Rote, McCance, & Huether, 2019) Hyperplasia is responsible for permanent cellular damage because when the stressor is not amended or controlled, the cells continue to grow and change simultaneously. (Brashers et al., 2019) The cells begin to undergo malignant transformation. Dysplasia is an abnormal development of a cell in shape, size, and body. (Brashers et al., 2019) This type of cellular change is related to a disordered growth of the cells of the epithelium, which is the tissue that lines the surface of organs and vessels throughout the body. (Brand, Ylvisaker, Gelfand, & Pope II, 1980) The occurrence of these abnormal cells signal change has occurred. Cellular changes that involve the surface of the epithelium may be reversed/corrected. This corrected change can occur if the stressors/injury is removed. If the full epithelium is involved, it is considered a pre-invasive neoplasm. (Brashers et al., 2019) Hyperplasia and Dysplasia are both cellular changes that occur for any number of causes. Chronic inflammation, hormonal changes, and exposure from injury, such as toxins or hypoxia. These examples of chronic stressors that cause cellular injury, are responsible for irreversible damage if prolonged exposure occurs to the cells. (Brashers et al., 2019) REFERNCES

Barrett Esophagus; Treatment of Barrett’s esophagus may lower risk of esophageal cancer. (2011). Retrieved from www.proquest.com/snhu.edu Brand, D., Ylvisaker, T., Gelfand, M., & Pope II, C. (1980, April 10). Regression of Columnar Esophageal (Barrett’s) Epithelium after Anti-Reflux Surgery. The New England

Brashers, V. L., Rote, N. S., McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology. The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children (8th ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: ELSEVIER, INC.