Principles Underpinning Health and Social Care
Principles Underpinning Health and Social Care
1.1: Discuss How Health and Social Care Values Influence Care Delivery
Berkowitz et al. (2019) indicate that values are essential ideas and beliefs regarding people and how they are expected to behave. These aspects are often developed by a group of people’s childhood experiences, families, cultures, backgrounds, education, religions, and relationships formed and people. Childhoods elaborate more on an individual’s overall growth and beliefs on health. This helps encourage people to lead healthy lives (Kerasidou, 2019). Families also influence how individuals view health and measures to promote their health and wellbeing. Cultures, education, backgrounds, religions, and relationships all impact the aspect of health among populations based on their thoughts, perspectives, and affordability of proper health care needs and preferences.
Besides, six essential values (6Cs) are applicable in health and social care among populations. These include communication, care, competence, compassion, courage, and commitment (Baillie, 2017). Health care values depict the need for health provision to be person-centered. The various values attached to person-centeredness include every patient being treated as an individual. Such helps promote patient autonomy, independence, and empowerment in seeking their health care services. Additionally, health professionals must work in partnership to ensure proper care is provided to patients. This can be attained if good communication and trust among health professionals while including their patients in the recovery process (Baillie, 2017).
Furthermore, the health providers must give a choice to patients by providing essential information to enhance their understanding of making informed decisions regarding their health. Another fundamental health value is the provision of privacy to the patients while providing their care. This influences their trust in the institution while feeling respected for the privacy accorded. Among other health care values included showing dignity and respect to patients through respecting their ethical/moral beliefs on health. It also includes showing and believing the patient is essential by ensuring they know their care needs.
Overly, health and social care values influence proper healthcare delivery, reduce health inequalities, and more focused distribution of health care resources. Hence, all health care workers must be professional, accountable, respectful to their duty of care, and focus on working together in safeguarding diverse populations’ health needs. The quality of care will be improved through understanding confidentiality in care, being committed to , and being compassionate (Kerasidou, 2019). The care professionals are expected to work towards improving social and individual lives in teams, thus, enhancing and building their professional relationships. They are expected to challenge each other to facilitate their learning and engage in advocacy and leadership to contribute to responsive healthcare culture.
1.2: Explain the Principles of Safeguarding Service Users
Safeguarding service users entails protecting individuals’ rights to live safely and free from abuse or neglect. Therefore, this allows people and organizations to work together to stop or prevent potential risks and experiences of neglect or abuse. This will ensure that people’s wellbeing is promoted through their views, feelings, wishes, and beliefs in any course of action. Service users must be shown equality whereby they are treated as equal partners and are shown respect. Besides, the diversity among service users should be acknowledged by making sure their voices on proper health are heard and engaged.
Safeguarding principles are developed to help protect vulnerable populations within the mental and physical disability context. Such entails those with mental illness, chronic illness, terminally ill, and elderly individuals. There are six main principles relating to service users safeguarding. First, the empowerment principle allows patients to receive the necessary support and confidence in making individual decisions while giving informed consent to their care provisions (Keeling & Goosey, 2020). The second principle includes protecting service users through alleviating abuse and raising more awareness on sufficient health care access. This indicates the importance of health practitioners to offer essential care support and representation for those in greatest need. Thirdly, the prevention principle entails taking action to enhance care delivery before harm or abuse occurs while preventing neglect.
The fourth principle includes proportionality provision among service users. This entails giving the least instructive response among patients to prevent any form of hurt. Such enhances the capacity to respect every person while assessing their health risks. The fifth principle includes the partnership aspect, which allows health care professionals to work together with the patients and the local communities to enhance health care and service usage (Keeling & Goosey, 2020). Consequently, this is important as it allows the local communities to prevent, detect, and report neglect and abuse. Lastly, the service users are safeguarded by the accountability principle whereby every individual in health and the community is responsible for their actions. Hence, this promotes the transparency element in safeguarding practice.
Task 2 Impact of Government Policy, Legislation, Regulation, Codes, and Standards on Practice
2.1: Evaluate a Piece of Government Legislation in Health and Social Care and its Influence on Practice
New governmental policies and regulations within the healthcare context require good reviews and revisions for existing policies while rewriting them if need be. Such changes must be communicated before implementation to ensure proper reviewing and monitoring of the guidelines. One essential piece of government legislation in health includes the Health and Social Care Act 2008 (regulated activities) Regulations 2014. This Act influences health and social care practices by providing diverse regulations to sustain the overall monitoring, inspection, and regulation of care services (Stirton, 2017). For instance, regulation 5 of the Act indicates that directors must be the fit and proper personnel to execute various care provision roles. Such must ensure quality and safety of care are provided while the fundamental care standards are met.
Additionally, regulation 8 of the Act indicates the need for every regulation to meet every regulated care activity. Regulation 9 focuses on identifying the efficacy of providing person-centered care and treatment for all people. Such is attainable by using healthcare services needs to personalize the care provided using a specific course of action (Stirton, 2017). The Act also identifies the need to attain regulation 10, which focuses on dignity and respect at all times while serving the patients regardless of their background. Regulation 11 of this Act also influences health and social care regarding the need for consent for all individuals using any services or those lawfully acting on their behalf. Before receiving any health care service, they must provide their consent for the treatment or care.
The Act further influences proper care following regulation 12, supporting safe care and treatment needs. Such ensures any health risks to the people’s wellbeing and safety must be sufficiently assessed. Besides, there is a need for healthcare professionals to have the right skills, qualifications, and experience to help keep people safe. Regulation 13 supports safeguarding services whereby the service users are protected from abuse and improper treatment (Braye & Preston-Shoot, 2019). This is mainly for individuals in vulnerable health positions, including mental health. Other essential regulations include 14, 16, 17, and 19 of the Act. Regulation 14 is concerned with attaining nutritional and hydration needs, while regulation 16 seeks to receive and efficiently act on complaints. Regulation 17 focuses on attaining sufficient governance among health systems and processes, while regulation 19 expands on the need for qualified personnel to be employed in care provision (Braye & Preston-Shoot, 2019)
2.2: Evaluate How Codes of Practice Influence Professional Practice
Various codes of practice are essential in influencing professional practice by providing standards that professionals would follow and work (Laverack, 2019). The codes of practice enhance the improved quality of services provided to clients as specific regulations for task execution are followed. These codes influence professional practice by protecting and promoting service users’ rights and interests, including care views and wishes. Hence, this helps build personalized relationships through care, leading to personal satisfaction with the services provided. Secondly, the code of practice enhances the establishment and maintenance of trust and confidence among service users (Laverack, 2019). Such includes being open and honest during the treatment process, which helps build relationships between patients and healthcare providers.
Thirdly, the codes of practice often influence the promotion of independence among healthcare service users while protecting them from potential harm and danger. This promotes autonomy in service provision (Solomon, 2020). Independence fastens the empowerment prospect while increasing confidence in taking control of their lives and wellbeing. Furthermore, utilizing the codes of practice defines how the professionals are expected to uphold public trust and confidence in health and social care service provision. It influences their capacity to uphold professional boundaries, including not condoning unlawful behaviors against patients. Lastly, the code of practice fosters professionals by ensuring they are accountable for the quality of their work. They are also responsible for knowledge and skills maintenance and improvement (Solomon, 2020).
Task 3 Theories Underpinning the Delivery of Health and Social Care Practice
3.1: and Its Role in Holistic Care
Person-centered care defines the capacity for healthcare professionals to work together with the patients in making unique plans for meeting their healthcare needs. Besides, the practitioners must consider and be accountable for the patients’ feelings, preferences, and wishes to help improve the patients’ quality of life (Eklund et al., 2019). The in encouraging patients to actively take part in their care plan. Professionals must seek and gain consent before starting treatment tasks on the patients. Picker provides 8 essential principles of patient-centered care. First, the patients must have sufficient access to care while their families and friends are effectively involved. The care process should be continuous and enhance transition. Patients must be offered sufficient emotional support and physical comfort while undergoing treatment (Fazio et al., 2018). Additionally, patients should be provided with sufficient information and education on their health and maintenance. Health professionals must coordinate and integrate care while respecting the patients’ health care preferences.
Consequently, holistic care entails thinking about a person wholly and not as an example. This ensures the person receives efficient care and has access to health or social activities. A holistic care approach ensures relationship maintenance with others by offering supportive care services. For instance, patients could be provided with walking equipment to help them move independently or equipment to enhance their eating and drinking. Therefore, this elaborates on how a whole person is considered during the care process by giving choices, being empathetic and understanding, showing dignity and respect, being a good listener, and being non-judgmental (Eklund et al., 2019).
Thus, the person-centered care approach fastens the implementation of the care approach by supporting the patients in maintaining their identities diversely. Such improves the patients’ self-esteem, confidence, wellbeing, sense of belonging, and life purpose. Besides, the patients become empowered to have control over their lives by installing patient-centered care values. Such include individuality, choice, rights, independence, respect, empowerment, dignity, privacy, and partnership. A holistic care plan also entails sufficient recognition of people’s differences, including age, race, and gender. While providing medical care, it is critical to think outside the medical care and treatment prospect. Professionals must think of the patient holistically to help overly support their wellbeing and quality of life. Therefore, this ensures the health providers find out what really matters to the patient and apply that in every treatment and care stage (Fazio et al., 2018).
3.2: Discuss Issues of Social Isolation and Exclusion in Service Users and How Professionals Can Help to Overcome Them
Social isolation defines the aspect of having small or non-existent social networks quantitatively and the frequency of contact among people (Macdonald et al., 2018). Social isolation is measured objectively. Social exclusion depicts the situation where people without jobs and who are poor do not feel part of the rest of society. Therefore, a person is prevented from participating or engaging in societal activities following their status quo while others remove themselves from being in contact with society. Different circumstances lead to social isolation and exclusion among service users. These include a person’s childhood social withdrawal experiences, retirement, specific illnesses, and poverty levels.
Social isolation levels are measures using the frequencies of social contacts, limited participation in social activities among people, and inadequate social engagement. It applies to all populations including children and adults. Social exclusion and isolation often lead to the development of depressive symptoms and increased diagnosis of depression. Currently, the coronavirus pandemic has increased the social isolation circumstance. This is mainly for older adults as they are forced to isolate themselves due to their health and age. They are part of the vulnerable population to contracting covid-19. Besides, individuals may become socially isolated when they lose a loved one or have a specific health condition that marginalizes them from the rest of the population.
Furthermore, there are essential barriers to social inclusion among populations. First, there is a problem with language barriers where specific individuals are socially excluded due to their incapacity to hear or communicate a similar language. Secondly, it is the housing problems whereby poor housing causes alienation among populations. This shows a lack of something and such influences social exclusion as the person does not fit societal expectations. Thirdly, the unemployment barrier is where individuals without jobs are not viewed as part of society. Overly, social isolation and exclusion can contribute to someone having major health issues, including alcohol addiction as a coping mechanism to the loneliness experienced. This addiction would equate to other major life issues, including homelessness and criminality. Fakoya et al. (2020) identify the main risk factors of social isolation at different levels, including individual, relationships, societal, and communities.
Professionals can help overcome social isolation and exclusion by identifying the life course’s key stages. For instance, during the pregnancy stage, there is a need to offer programs to support women, thus, alleviating maternal depression. In infancy, childhood, and adolescence, parenting and schooling programs are required. They will provide essential support to children by developing resilience and better transitions of life. Professionals are to offer essential adulting programs to foster employment and support skills development to enhance employability during the working age. Lastly, it is essential to support older people after retirement by providing social activities and care. The various interventions will help improve relationship quality, self-acceptance, and development of realistic relationship standards.
Baillie, L. (2017). An exploration of the 6Cs as a set of values for nursing practice.British Journal of Nursing,26(10), 558-563. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2017.26.10.558
Berkowitz, S. A., Baggett, T. P., & Edwards, S. T. (2019). Addressing health-related social needs: value-based care or value-based care? Journal of General Internal Medicine,34(9), 1916-1918. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-019-05087-3
Braye, S., & Preston-Shoot, M. (Eds.). (2019). The care act 2014: Wellbeing in practice. Sage.
Eklund, J. H., Holmstrm, I. K., Kumlin, T., Kaminsky, E., Skoglund, K., Hglander, J., … & Meranius, M. S. (2019). Same same or different? A review of reviews of person-centered and patient-centered care. Patient Education and Counseling, 102(1), 3-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2018.08.029
Fakoya, O. A., McCorry, N. K., & Donnelly, M. (2020). Loneliness and social isolation interventions for older adults: a scoping review of reviews. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-8251-6
Fazio, S., Pace, D., Flinner, J., & Kallmyer, B. (2018). The fundamentals of person-centered care for individuals with dementia.The Gerontologist,58(suppl_1), S10-S19. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnx122
Keeling, J., & Goosey, D. (2020). Safeguarding across the life span. Sage.
Kerasidou, A. (2019). Empathy and efficiency in healthcare at times of austerity.Health Care Analysis,27(3), 171-184. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10728-019-00373-x
Laverack, G. (2019). Public health: Power, empowerment and professional practice. Macmillan International Higher Education.
Macdonald, S. J., Deacon, L., Nixon, J., Akintola, A., Gillingham, A., Kent, J., … & Highmore, L. (2018). ‘The invisible enemy’: Disability, loneliness, and isolation.Disability & Society,33(7), 1138-1159. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2018.1476224
Solomon, J. (2020).Corporate governance and accountability. John Wiley & Sons.
Stirton, R. (2017). The health and social care Act 2008 (regulated activities) regulations 2014: A litany of fundamental flaws? https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2230.12255
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