Personal Loss: Bereavement and Grief

Chapter 12 – Personal Loss

Question(s): Be prepared to discuss 2 questions
Compare the Adaptive grieving model (Martin & Doka, 2000) and the Dual Process model (Stroebe & Schut, 2001). What are the similarities and differences? Which seems to fit best to your style of counseling? Why is that so?

Guidelines:The answer should be based on the knowledge obtained from reading the book, no just your opinion. If there are 2 questions in the discussion, you must answer both of them. Your grade will be an average of both questions.


Chapter Twelve: Personal Loss: Bereavement and Grief

Terms Critical to Understanding Loss


Uncomplicated bereavement


Complicated grief/prolonged grief

Traumatic grief

Disenfranchised grief


Primary loss

Secondary loss

Ambiguous loss


Dynamics of Bereavement

Cultural Dynamics


3 patterns of response:

Death accepting

Death defying

Death denying

Sociocultural Mores

Spirituality and Religion

Conceptual Approaches to Bereavement

Stage/Phase Models

Kubler-Ross’s Stages

Bowlby’s Attachment Theory

Schneider’s Growth Model

Counterpart to Traditional Models

Dual Process Model

Loss orientation

Restoration orientation

Adaptive Model

Intuitive grieving Instrumental grieving

Assessment Tools

Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG)

Current Grief

Past Disruption

Grief Experience Inventory (GEI)

Nine clinical scales

Hogan Grief Reaction Checklist (HGRC)

Can discriminate variability in the grieving process as a function of cause of death and time elapsed since death

Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG)

Targets symptoms of grief that are distinct from bereavement-related depression and anxiety, and predicts long-term functional impairments

Types of Loss

Death of a Spouse

One of the most emotionally stressful and disruptive events in life

More widows than widowers

Loss Due to Caregiving

Death of a Child

Perhaps the ultimate loss for a person to endure regardless of the age of the child

Types of Loss Cont.

Bereavement in Childhood


Primary school age

Middle school age

Intervention and treatment

Bereavement in Adolescence

Value of connectedness

Intervention and treatment

Bereavement in the Elderly

Present more somatic problems than psychological problems

No indication that the intensity of grief varies significantly with age

Grief among older people may be more prolonged than among younger people

Tend to be lonelier and to have far longer periods of loneliness than younger people

Types of Loss Cont.


Job Loss

Separation and Divorce

Death of a Pet

Complicated Grief

Traumatic grief

Being There for Grievers

Empathic Presence

Gentle Conversation

Providing Available Space

Eliciting Trust

Fitting Technique to Style of Grief

The Dual Process Model

The griever sometimes confronts and sometimes avoids the stressors of both orientations

Adaptive Model





Fitting Technique to Style of Grief Cont.

Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches

Most commonly used therapies for those who suffer from complicated grief

Narrative Therapy

Reconstructs the relationship with the deceased rather than abandoning it

Attachment Theory and Therapy

One of the oldest theories that deals with grief and loss

“Coherent narrative”

Case Examples for Dealing with Loss

Sudden Death of a Spouse


Traumatic Death of a Child

Helen and Brad

Bereavement in Childhood


Separation and Divorce


Case Examples for Dealing with Loss Cont.

Death of a Pet

The Thompsons

Bereavement in Elderly People


Bereavement in an HIV-Infected Client


Complicated Grief: Death of a Mother

Ann Marie

The Crisis Worker’s Own Grief

Emotional investment in the client

Bereavement overload


Emotional replenishment

Facing one’s own mortality

Sense of power

Tendency to rescue

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