value contradictions values that conflict with one another or are mutually exclusive.
norms established rules of behavior or standards of conduct.
sanctions rewards for appropriate behavior or penalties for inappropriate behavior.
folkways informal norms or everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture.
mores strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences in a particular culture.
taboos mores so strong that their violation is considered to be extremely offensive and even unmentionable.
laws formal, standardized norms that have been enacted by legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions.
technology the knowledge, techniques, and tools that allow people to transform resources into usable forms, and the knowledge and skills required to use them after they are developed.
cultural lag William Ogburn’s term for a gap between the technical development of a society (material culture) and its moral and legal institutions (nonmaterial culture).
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