A research methodology is a description of aathe steps, strategies, and approaches used in a study to gather, analyze, and interpret data. More specifically, it concerns the methodical steps a researcher takes when creating a study to ensure reliable results that satisfy the aims and objectives of the research. There are three basic categories of research methodologies: mixed, quantitative, and qualitative.
Quantitative research involves the acquisition and analysis of numerical data. This approach collects and analyses data mathematically, statistically, or computationally to yield quantitative results (Taguchi, 2018). Using it, we can discover patterns and averages, develop theories, investigate causes, and extrapolate results to larger groups. This methodology uses structured tools such as polls, surveys, or questionnaires to gather in-depth and actionable data from the respondents. Sample sizes which are representative of the target population are used during the collection of data (Taguchi, 2018). The questions in the surveys, polls, and questionnaires are often close-ended and are based on the study’s objective.
Understanding concepts, viewpoints, or experiences is the aim of the qualitative research technique, which collects and (Mohajan, 2018). It may be employed to uncover precise information regarding a subject or come up with fresh research concepts. Open-ended and conversational dialogue is the main emphasis of qualitative research while gathering data. It is founded on social scientific subfields, including psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Due to this, employing qualitative research methodology enables the interviewer or researcher to go further into the responses of respondents and ask more pointed questions in an effort to understand their motivations and attitudes. Research results may be drawn more effectively if one understands how the audience makes decisions. This methodology is the most appropriate for the current research project since it can adequately be applied to research that does not require ethical approval. The research shall utilize secondary data to answer the research question. This will not involve interacting with human study subjects in the field, which requires ethical approval. Instead, it will make use of existing material on the topic under study, including literature, videos, and voice recordings.
The mixed methods approach is a research methodology that combines elements of both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies (Taguchi, 2018). It gives a broader understanding of the topic under study as it integrates the benefits of both methods. This methodology is often used in multidisciplinary settings and complex societal research.
Data Collection Methods
Exploratory qualitative data collection methods are often more focused on learning and delving deeper to identify the root reasons. Measurability constraints often lead to qualitative data collection approaches being unstructured or, in rare cases, structured. Individual interviews, qualitative surveys, focus group discussions, observations, and secondary research are some of the most popular techniques for gathering qualitative data.
An individual interview is a direct conversation between two people with a predetermined structure and objective (Kruger et al., 2019). Interview questionnaires are used to determine the interviewee’s experience or point of view regarding a topic, project, or issue. Due to its approach cases, structured approach, and high recognition, it is one of the most popular and trusted qualitative data gathering methods. Depending on the interviewer’s method, the conversation may occasionally be informal or unstructured. Still, it should always be directed at discovering the person’s opinions, values, understandings, feelings, experiences, and perceptions of an issue (Kruger et al., 2019). When researchers want participants to provide highly personalized information, one-on-one interviews are the best strategy for gathering qualitative data. A one-on-one interview is a great approach if the interviewer chooses to go farther and ask additional questions to obtain a deeper understanding.
Researchers use qualitative surveys to develop an informed hypothesis. It is also used to collect detailed information on topics of interest. The two major types of qualitative surveys are paper surveys and online surveys. Paper surveys use paper questionnaires for qualitative data collection from participants, while online surveys are prepared using online survey software and disseminated to participants through email or uploaded on websites. In both types of surveys, questions are often open-ended and solicit respondents to give as much detailed information as possible.
Focus group discussions are a type of interview conducted within a group discussion setting consisting of six to eight people (Kruger et al., 2019). The participants may agree or disagree with each other’s opinions. Focus groups enable researchers to know a group’s perception of a topic (Kruger et al., 2019). The data capture the differences in the participant’s beliefs, experiences, and practices. In observation, people and their behavior are observed in a natural setting for the purpose of collecting descriptive data. Here, the researcher gets immersed in observing the participants by assuming a participatory stance.
Secondary research entails using already existing data, which is summarized and collated to increase the research’s effectiveness (Largan & Morris, 2019). The data is obtained from research reports and similar materials available on websites, filled surveys, government and private agencies, and public libraries. Researchers mostly prefer secondary research due to its cost-effectiveness and less time-consuming process. It is also the best approach for research that does not require ethical approval since there is no direct interaction with participants (Largan & Morris, 2019). For this reason, it will be used in the current research project. The increased availability and easy access to vast amounts of data that has been collected, compiled, and archived also facilitated the choice of this data collection approach.
This research project employed secondary research in its data collection. Data was sourced from several qualitative studies on communication patterns in healthcare organizations and between hospital staff and their clients. This study used grounded theory techniques of constant comparison across the various studies to identify the pattern of responses from participants. was conducted to identify key categories related to communication patterns between health care practitioners (Albury et al., 2019). Each transcript’s lines, sentences, and paragraphs were examined to find terms or phrases describing healthcare professionals’ conversations. , the researchers grouped and assigned names to relevant topics and themes pertaining to practitioners’ opinions on interpersonal communication. Discussions were ongoing as themes and categories were created, and disagreements over interpretation were settled by reaching a consensus.
Albury, C., Hall, A., Syed, A., Ziebland, S., Stokoe, E., Roberts, N., … & Aveyard, P. (2019). Communication practices for delivering health behaviour change conversations in primary care: a systematic review and thematic synthesis.BMC Family Practice,20(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12875-019-0992-x
Kruger, L. J., Rodgers, R. F., Long, S. J., & Lowy, A. S. (2019). Individual interviews or focus groups? Interview format and womens self-disclosure.International Journal of Social Research Methodology,22(3), 245-255. https://doi.org/10.1080/13645579.2018.1518857
Largan, C., & Morris, T. (2019).Qualitative secondary research: A . Sage.
Mohajan, H. K. (2018). Qualitative research methodology in social sciences and related subjects.Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People,7(1), 23-48. https://econpapers.repec.org/scripts/redir.pf?u=https%3A%2F%2Fmpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de%2F85654%2F1%2FMPRA_paper_85654.pdf;h=repec:pra:mprapa:85654
Taguchi, N. (2018). Description and explanation of pragmatic development: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research.System,75, 23-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2018.03.010
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