Introduction to Clinical Inquiry

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Use this document to completePart 2of the Module 2 Assessment,Evidence-Based Project, Part 1: An Introduction to Clinical Inquiry and Part 2: Research Methodologies

Fullcitationof selected article Article #1 Article #2 Article #3 Article #4
  Vandemeulebroucke, T., de Casterle, B. D., & Gastmans, C. (2018). The use of care robots in aged care: A systematic review of . Archives of gerontology and geriatrics, 74, 15-25


Sharkey, A., & Sharkey, N. (2012). Granny and the robots: ethical issues in robot care for the elderly. Ethics and information technology, 14(1), 27-40. Stahl, B. C., & Coeckelbergh, M. (2016). Ethics of healthcare robotics: Towards responsible research and innovation. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 86, 152-161.


Nylander, S., Ljungblad, S., & Villareal, J. J. (2012, September). A complementing approach for identifying ethical issues in in practical use. In 2012 IEEE RO-MAN: The 21st IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (pp. 797-802). IEEE.
Whyyou chose this article and/orhow it relatesto the clinical issue of interest (include a briefexplanation of the ethicsof research related to your clinical issue of interest) I chose this article because it contained all the keywords I used in my search question. The article addresses various ethical issues in the use of robotics in support of elderly health care and daily management (Vandemeulebroucke et al., 2018). The article is very relevant to my clinical issue of interest, as its topic reads. The article uses a systematic research approach to explain the clinical issue of interest, and hence I found it very crucial in addressing the matter under discussion. The potential ethical issues in the research include the conflict between the medical researchers and social activists on the matter under criticism. The researcher faces the ethical issue of objectivity and honesty in highlighting the various ethical concerns in the use of robotics without acknowledging the advantages of the latter.


I chose this article because it addresses various health ethical issues, including human welfare in the technological operation procedures, the privacy of the patient information, trust, and informed consent, among others (Sharkey and Sharkey, 2012). The article relates to the clinical issue of interest because it associates the identified ethical issues with technological improvements, like robotics and other AI-backed machines (Sharkey and Sharkey, 2012). The ethical issues in conducting such research include that the health practitioners can sue the researcher for the publication that seems to expose weaknesses of medical digitization.


I chose this article because it analyses the healthcare improvements that have taken place in recent history and compared them to the traditional approaches (Stahl and Coeckelbergh, 2016). The comparison reveals some ethical concerns in the use of modernized technological care like robots. The article is very relevant to the clinical issue of interest because it gives credit to technological innovations, but snubs them based on responsible innovation claims (Stahl and Coeckelbergh, 2016). The ethical concern around the research includes objectivity test principles that require one to criticize others’ work in research but give positive credit also on the topic. The researcher must maintain high integrity in the reporting process. I chose this article because it addresses sensitive patient concerns form robotic care (Nylander et al., 2012). The article is very relevant to the clinical issue because it scientifically explains the implications of leaving elderly patients on robotic care. I chose the article because it clearly points to specific ethical concerns in technology backed care for the elderly in society. The researchers face critical ethical issues through the research (Nylander et al., 2012). One of the ethical issues in the research is protecting the interviewees privacy. The researchers interviewed several patients on the issue, and hence they must ensure the patients anonymity is protected. Secondly, the research should be true and unbiased.
Briefdescription of the aimsof the research of each peer-reviewed article The aims of the research include the identification ofconceptual-ethical questionsand ethical arguments around the subject of using robots to care for the elderly (Vandemeulebroucke et al., 2018). Moreover, the researchers aimed at identifying deontological and the objective-list of ethical care practices. Besides, the researchers aimed at ethical debate points and gaugingaged-care settingsunder artificial intelligence and robotics (Vandemeulebroucke et al., 2018). The article aims to expose the growing elderly healthcare needs and the technological solutions to the latter. The article aims at exposing the ethical concerns in the implementation of technological solutions in caring for the elderly (Sharkey and Sharkey, 2012). The research article aims at proving the relationship between robotics use and elderly patient satisfaction in the health facilities. The main aim of the article ethically analyses modern technology use in the health sector. Robotic care for the elderly is the major issue under discussion in this article (Stahl and Coeckelbergh, 2016). The article critiques the classic technology use and philosophical speculation and arguments for and against the use of the technology. The article also aims at establishing the sociological account of using robots to care for the elderly. The research aims to clarify the ethical issues around the use of robotics to care for elderly patients (Nylander et al., 2012). The research identifies potential ethical issues and uses interviews and other research methods to establish the factual background on the matter. The research aims at establishing the views of the elderly people, alongside other patients on the robotic care accorded to them in hospitals (Nylander et al., 2012).
Brief description of theresearch methodologyused Be sure to identify if the methodology used wasqualitative,quantitative, or amixed-methodsapproach. Be specific. The article used qualitative research to query the views of the general public on the subject under investigation (Vandemeulebroucke et al., 2018). The qualitative method involved the use of a literature review on the topic under inquiry. The systematic literature search included identification of questions, literature search in relevant databases and analyzing and describing the ethical concerns.


The two researchers embarked on the qualitative research method in the study (Sharkey and Sharkey, 2012). The literature review used other peer-reviewed sources to build on the paper’s major concepts. The researchers used several academic research databases to draw concepts for the paper, as seen in the numerous sources used. The researchers use a mixed-method approach to address query the identified clinical issue of interest (Stahl and Coeckelbergh, 2016). The researchers embark on a democratic dialogue, where the participants responded to the ethical concerns on robotics care. The research also employed qualitative research depicting how other writers have addressed the matter. The researchers also rely on their experience in embedded ethicsin technology-related projects (Stahl and Coeckelbergh, 2016). The research method used in this article is a mixed approach. The research is mixed because it relies on interviews as well as secondary sources to explain the context (Nylander et al., 2012). Different interviewers gave varied information on their take on the identified clinical issue and hence. The researchers also inferred other peer-reviewed sources to get more information on the topic.
A brief description of thestrengthsof each of the research methodologies used, including thereliabilityandvalidityof how the methodology was applied in each of the peer-reviewed articles you selected. The strength of the qualitative research used is that it gives an overview of the ethical issues in the use of robots to care for elderly patients (Vandemeulebroucke et al., 2018). The research method is quick enough to give a glimpse of how people and researchers view the topic under consideration. The major strength in the method used is that it is less involving, in terms of time and resources, yet it gives a reliable overview of the subject matter. The literature review backed research methodology is valid and backs the in the article. The major strength evidenced in the paper is that it identifies six ethical issues in the use of technology to care for the elderly in society (Sharkey and Sharkey, 2012). The article used many relevant sources and hence has an in-depth inquiry. The qualitative research method used in the article was valid because it blends in between several literature materials to explain various ethical concerns in the use of robotics in caring for the elderly, including objectification. The main strength of the article is that the findings are reliable, citing the research method used in the latter. The use of personal experiences in describing a particular subject under inquiry gives reliable first-hand information (Stahl and Coeckelbergh, 2016). The researchers back their first-hand account to secondary information form respondents (Stahl and Coeckelbergh, 2016). The methodology is very reliable because it most depicts a firsthand account as well as secondary information on the clinical issue. The first strength in the article is the use of pf primary data to get an overview of the clinical issue form the patients themselves (Nylander et al., 2012). Secondly, the secondary data provides a comparative statistic on the subject under investigation. The article explains how robots are used as carers and the resulting social consequences to the patients. The article relied heavily on data collection, and therefore, it is commendable for the clinical issue of interest.
General Notes/Comments The article is effective and reliable in addressing ethical issues around the use of artificial intelligence machines to care for elderly patients (Vandemeulebroucke et al., 2018). The clinical and healthcare environment is labor-intensive, and hence, robots can be used in some cases. However, it is unethical to make the elderly think that they are being neglected by the healthcare workers, who are mainly young people.


The article is important in addressing the ethical issue of interest. The authors recommend striking a balance between machine care and human care for the elderly (Sharkey and Sharkey, 2012). The technological advancements have some benefits but come with an ethical cost that must be addressed. The article follows ethicaltechnological innovation about the expected ethical issues in the use of the latter (Stahl and Coeckelbergh, 2016). There are already established ethical concerns for all scientific innovations. The use of robotics in healthcare violates conventional ethical concerns, and hence, the article is critical in such an analysis. The article is reliable because it explains specific ethical concerns in the use of robotics to care for senior citizens (Nylander et al., 2012). The article shows how society has failed in implementing ethical considerations in medical technology.

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