Does frequency tone (frequency music) increase verbalization in patients with stroke?
Thesis: to study whether frequency tone (frequency music), better known as musical therapy, can help improve a patient’s speech and language skills after a stroke.
Existing research on the role of musical therapy
Evidence-based research on the role of music in the rehabilitation of aphasic individuals
Aim of the paper
Purpose of this research
Variables in the study
Dependent and independent variables in the study
Justification of melodic intonation therapy (MIT)
Collection of data and results
Connection of articles to the thesis statement
Many research studies show that frequency music can aid in healing patients with stroke. The role of music in human life and body cannot be undermined as there are increasingly more and more fields where music is used. Music can enhancee, motor function in people with neurological impairment due to a stroke (Bernardi et al.). A study conducted at Adden brookes hospital in Cambridge shows that the use of music therapy on stroke students and other forms of stroke rehabilitation helped patients positively. The trial found that stroke patients who received music therapy and routine stroke rehabilitation improved their brain and motor abilities. Both the patients’ disposition and focus improved. Comment by Bradford, Angela: If you want to open with this sentence. You have to right away define frequency music. Talk about it briefly and then briefly state its utility with people with stroke. Comment by Rolanda Petit-Bois: Comment by Bradford, Angela: Focus on stroke Comment by Bradford, Angela: This goes in the Lit. Review section
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in 2020, stroke was the cause of 1 in 6 fatalities from cardiovascular disease. A stroke occurs in the United States every 40 seconds. One person has a stroke and dies every 3.5 minutes. In the US, there are more than 795,000 stroke victims annually. Of them, about 610,000 are new or first strokes. Nearly 1 in 4 strokes, or about 185,000, occur among persons who have already experienced a stroke. Ischemic strokes account for around 87% of all strokes when blood flow to the brain is interrupted. Between 2017 and 2018, the US spent over $53 billion on stroke-related expenses. This sum covers the price of medical services, stroke medication, and lost workdays(“Stroke Facts”). Comment by Bradford, Angela: As you know from the Aphasia course, there are different types of strokes. Focus on one based on the music therapy literature. If music therapy literature speaks to ischemic stroke, focus on that only.
Evidence-Based Research on the Role of Music in the Rehabilitation of Aphasic IndividualsComment by Bradford, Angela: Again, you need to focus on one thing. Are you talking about aphasia or ischemic stroke. Try to narrowly focus your discussion on one thing. You may want to focus on nonfluent aphasia since melodic intonation therapy was designed for that population. Comment by Bradford, Angela: Start with an introductory paragraph and then introduce your critical review of the studies.
A study by (Sihvonen et al., year) revealed that, particularly in aphasic individuals, listening to vocal music improved verbal memory recovery more than instrumental music or audiobooks and language recovery more than audiobooks. Voxel-based morphometry, resting-state, and task-based fMRI results revealed that vocal music listening increased gray matter volume in left temporal areas and functional connectivity in the default mode network. As a result, vocal music listening is an efficient and widely usable tool to support cognitive recovery after stroke and enhance early language recovery in aphasia. Vocal music has therapeutic effects due to alterations in the temporo-parietal networks, which are essential for language, memory, and emotional processing. Comment by Bradford, Angela: When introducing a study, you may state something like “Sihvonen, et al (2022) investigated the use of vocal music on individuals with aphasia. ” Then you talk about their population, their methods, their results. Then speak to limitations, what was good bout the study, and what they didn’t do that you plan to do. Comment by Bradford, Angela: What is this? Assume your readers don’t know what these terms are. Comment by Bradford, Angela: Can you break this down so that the reader understands? Comment by Bradford, Angela: It’s okay if this is the only study that you review. Will you be duplicating their methods, fine-tuning or doing something that you think is better?
AIM OF PAPER
Purpose of This Research
The main aim of this paper is to investigate whether frequency music can increase verbalization in patients with stroke. For this study, I have the details of a stroke patient who is a 65-year-old black female named VF. The patient was hurt in a car accident, and she lost consciousness while driving and constrained. She felt discomfort in her right upper extremity. She denied having any chest pain, but when she arrived at the rehabilitation center the morning of admission, she experienced a vasovagal episode. The patient’s ECG at that time revealed 73 beats per minute with normal sinus rhythm, potential left atrial enlargement, and left ventricular hypertrophy. The patient also had a code blue and rapid reaction team activation. The patient’s initial blood pressure, low at 89/56, was soon brought up to normal when IV fluids was initiated. Comment by Bradford, Angela: Based on what I’ve read so far, I don’t know what frequency music is and I don’t if vocal music is a part of that. Comment by Bradford, Angela: Aphasia or ischemic stroke? Comment by Bradford, Angela: What kind of stroke did she have? Did she have a nonfluent aphasia as a consequence of the stroke? Comment by Bradford, Angela: Which is what? Remember your audience. Comment by Bradford, Angela: Spell out
According to the medical records, the patient is hospitalized thorough inpatient rehabilitation; Because she takes Percocet, she will also be taught about opioid-induced constipation. The patient was diagnosed with intracranial bleeding on the 5th of August. VF was placed in the brain dysfunction impairment group due to the diagnosis. This particular research will try and deduce whether frequency music (musical therapy) might be the answer to helping VF regain her speech abilities and record the amount of time it will take. This will involve performing 8-10 treatment sessions with VF to see if the frequency of music tone increases verbalization in stroke patients. In the field of aphasia therapy, vocal music is particularly intriguing. The capacity to form words by singing is frequently retained in non-fluent aphasia, and aphasic individuals can acquire new verbal content when using a sung auditory model. In particular, when given at the subacute post-stroke stage, singing-based speech training therapies like melodic intonation therapy (MIT) have been proven to improve the generation of taught speech content and the recovery of verbal communication in aphasia. At this time, it is uncertain if listening to vocal music might have favorable long-term benefits on aphasia patients’ early language rehabilitation (Sihvonen et al.). Comment by Bradford, Angela: Use past-tense Comment by Bradford, Angela: This is extraneous. Comment by Bradford, Angela: This should be placed in the Literature Review section.
Variables in the Study
The variables to be measured include the amount of? Quality of? verbalization outcome after musical therapy, the amount of time taken by the patient to regain speech abilities, and the specific type of music that speeds up the regaining of verbalization in the patient. Comment by Bradford, Angela: This may take more than a few weeks to quantify. I would take this out. You could however, state that after 5 weeks, VFs output increased by 40% (for example) Comment by Bradford, Angela: You can only state the type of music that you used.
Dependent and Independent Variables in the Study
The independent variable during this research will be the type of music that helps the patient increase verbalization. The rest of the variables will be dependent variables. This is because both the verbalization outcome after musical therapy and the amount of time taken to regain verbalization depend on the type of music the patients brain responds to (Xu et al.). Before the commencement of the study, it is vital to be aware of the type of music that VF’s brain responds to most. Awareness of this fact might help faster and better regaining of verbalization in the patient during this research period. Comment by Bradford, Angela: These are your DV Comment by Bradford, Angela: How will you measure this?
Justification of Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT) Comment by Bradford, Angela: Now you’re confusing me. Is this the same as frequency music? Are you looking at MIT with nonfluent aphasia? Stroke with frequency music? What are you investigating?
The SEP theory proposes that the rhythmic components of MIT (e.g., singing rhythm, left-hand tapping) can aid in sound envelope processing, synchronization, and entrainment to a pulse. In that instance, formulaic phrases and sentences predictably necessitate exact pulse encoding or periodic timing of vocalizations. However, left-hand tapping can aid in synchronization and entrainment to the pulse. Thus, MIT may be interpreted as an effective way to engage (a) the auditory afferent circuit to encourage precise sound encoding, (b) the subcortical-prefrontal loop to help encourage patients, (c) the BG-thalamo-cortical circuit to , and (d) the efferent cortical motor circuit to promote motor output under the SEP framework. The ability to interact with and reveal language-capable regions in the unaffected right hemisphere, such as the structural reorganization of the arcuate fasciculus, a fiber bundle connecting the posterior superior temporal region and the posterior inferior frontal region, is one justification for MIT (Fujii and Wan, year). Comment by Bradford, Angela: What does this stand for? Spell out and explain. Comment by Bradford, Angela: Very complicated statement. Breakdown and provide a citation Comment by Bradford, Angela: Spell out Comment by Bradford, Angela: How does all this apply to your patient?
Collection of Data and Results
During the period that VF will be under musical therapy, language samples will be collected from the patient during each session from the beginning to the end of the study, after which the results will be compared and analyzed from baseline. The comparison and analysis of results will show whether the musical therapy worked as postulated and will help answer our central research question: Does frequency tone (frequency music) increase verbalization in patients with stroke? The results and conclusions from this study will help inform future research on the same topic while also helping physicians and healthcare officials involved with stroke patients make informed decisions on whether or not to include music therapy in the patient’s care plan. Comment by Bradford, Angela: Please be consistent with your terminology. Comment by Bradford, Angela: Frequency music or MIT? Ischemic stroke or nonfluent aphasia?
Connection of Articles to the Thesis Statement
All the articles chosen for this thesis are complementary to the main research question in several ways. They are all scholarly articles and trusted sources that delve into the role of musical therapy in rehabilitating patients who have had a stroke. (Sihvonen et al.), for example, conduct research into the role of vocal music in the enhancement of memory and recovery of language after a stroke. A study that shows positive results in that light since they conclude that their results imply that vocal music listening may be used to complement speech and language therapy, which is frequently challenging to adopt at the early post-stroke stage because of the intensity of symptoms, general exhaustion, and a lack of rehabilitation resources even though more research is still required to confirm the impacts of vocal music listening on aphasia. Comment by Bradford, Angela: You keep mentoning vocal music. Why not use just investigate that? It’s less ambiguous than frequency music/tone/MIT. Comment by Bradford, Angela: This is wordy and seems like a sentence fragment.
(Xu et al.), conclude that music therapy can enhance neurological function by stimulating the brain’s neural networks and neuroplasticity. However, more research has to be done on particular neurological pathways. The benefits of music therapy for stroke recovery have been steadily demonstrated in clinical settings, and the therapy is straightforward, secure, and well-tolerated. However, large-scale randomized controlled trials are required because there are not many clinical studies with patients right now.
Bernardi, L., et al. “Cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory changes induced by different types of music in musicians and non-musicians: the importance of silence.”Heart, vol. 92, no. 4, 2005, pp. 445452.
CDC. “Stroke Facts.”Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, the 5th of Aprilthe 5th of April. 2022, www.cdc.gov/stroke/facts.htm.
Fujii, Shinya, and CatherineY. Wan. “The Role of Rhythm in Speech and Language Rehabilitation: The SEP Hypothesis.”Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, vol.8,2014, doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00777.
Rigby, Sara. “Music Therapy for Stroke Patients improves Brain and Motor Function.’”BBC Science Focus Magazine – Science, Nature, Technology, Q&As – BBC Science Focus Magazine, BBC, the 6th of Marchthe 6th of March 2020, www.sciencefocus.com/news/music-therapy-for-stroke-patients-improves-brain-and-motor-function/.
Sihvonen, AleksiJ., et al. “Vocal music enhances memory and language recovery after stroke: pooled results from two RCTs.”Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology, vol. 7, no. 11, 2020, pp. 22722287.
Xu, Chengyan, et al. “Potential Benefits of Music Therapy on Stroke Rehabilitation.”Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2022, 2022, pp. 111, doi.org/10.1155/2022/9386095.
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