Impact of a Genetic Risk Score on Myocardial Infarction Risk

APA format for MSN degree 2 references from Walden University Library

 

A heart attack or Myocardial infarction (MI) is the leading factor of death in adults worldwide (Nicolai et al., 2018).  MI occur in patients when the blood flow to the heart is blocked due to increased built of plaque within the walls of the blood vessels. Patients can experience sharp, sudden pain or heaviness in their chest as the first sign when experiencing an MI.  This pain can be in the chest and move up to the jaw and down the left arm. When blood flow is decreased to the heart, there is an insufficient amount of oxygen supplied to the heart, and the electrolyte become imbalanced specifically potassium, calcium, and magnesium.  The heart can only handle the blood, oxygen, and electrolyte imbalances for twenty minutes before tissue begins to die, at this point is the damage is irreversible (Huether & McCance, 2017). As an advanced practice nurse, an Electrocardiogram (ECG) would be first in diagnosing techniques. Depending on the results of the ECG will help determine how to treat the patient. If the ECG showed ST elevation, this means the patient needs to get to a cardiac catheterization lab urgently. If the ECG results within reasonable limits, treating the chest pain would be the next appropriate step.  Medication used to treat stable chest pain are called nitrates. The most common name is nitroglycerin. The medication is placed underneath the tongue where it dissolves and should relieve the pain within one to five minutes (Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, & Reinhold, 2017).  When the ECG indicates a STEMI, a thrombolytic medication should be initiated to dissolve any blood clots in the arteries (Avoiding, 2005). A standard medication used in my patient care experience is heparin which is first based on weight for the first six hours of treatment. After six hours labs are drawn on the patient to determine whether the rate should be titrated up or down. After patient returns from cardiac catheterization lab, cardiology doctors can provide guidance on how to proceed with the proper medications for the patient.

Genetics and Ethnicity

If your parents have had an MI, does it mean you will have one? Likely the answer is no; research has shown necessarily doesn’t say you will but have found a link among ethnicity in Europeans, South Asians, Southeast Asians, and Arabs (Joseph et al., 2016). Specifically, there’s no genetic link to an MI but rather coronary artery disease (CAD) which can lead to MI.  However modifiable risk factors, such as a healthy lifestyle, prove to be the most significant way to decrease the risk of an MI.

Self-Care

After a patient experiences an MI, usually, they are set up to attend a Cardiac rehabilitation program. This program helps the patient get back to a healthy lifestyle while incorporating changes to prevent an MI in the future. Advanced practice providers should closely watch patients with hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Research has shown if a patient has two out three diagnoses they are at higher risk for a heart attack (Avoiding, 2005). Encouraging physical activity, a healthy diet, and smoking cessation are critical factors in patient education. Studies suggest educating patients on doing at least thirty minutes of activity a day such as walking, gardening, or housework also to cut out fast food that is high in fat and sugary drinks (Advance et al., 2005).

Reference

Arcangelo, V. P., Peterson, A. M., Wilbur, V. & Reinhold, J. A.  (Eds.). (2017). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (4th ed.). Ambler, PA:  Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Avoiding heart attacks and strokes. [electronic resource]: don’t be a victim – protect yourself. (2005). Geneva: World Health Organization, c2005.

Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Joseph, P. G., Pare, G., Asma, S., Engert, J. C., Yusuf, S., & Anand, S. S. (2016). Clinical Research: Impact of a Genetic Risk Score on Myocardial Infarction Risk Across Different Ethnic Populations. Canadian Journal Of Cardiology, 321440-1446. doi:10.1016/j.cjca.2016.05.014

Nicolai, J., Müller, N., Noest, S., Wilke, S., Schultz, J., Gleißner, C. A., & … Bieber, C. (2018). To change or not to change – That is the question: A qualitative study of lifestyle changes following acute myocardial infarction. Chronic Illness, 14(1), 25-41. doi:10.1177/1742395317694700

Get professional assignment help cheaply

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Our essay writers are graduates with diplomas, bachelor, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college diploma. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer.

Why choose our academic writing service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

 

 

 

 

 

 

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
1
You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp! Via +1 817 953 0426

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.
  +1 (301) 710 0002           + 44 161 818 7126           [email protected]
  + 44 161 818 7126         [email protected]