Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, and Habituation/recovery in Young Infants
An example of classical conditioning in
infants is when a child starts crying at the sight of a needle during routine
immunization. A good example of operant conditioning in infants occurs when a
baby continues to suck a bottle that brings a sweet liquid. An example of
habituation/recovery is when a baby is startled by loud noise and begins to
look for the source of the noise in fear of attack.
Classical conditioning is important
because it helps a child to learn through association. Operant conditioning is essential
because it allows us to understand the role of reinforcement in infants’
learning. Habituation/recovery is important because it indicates that a child
is learning from their environment.
Perception in Infants
Intermodal perception is fundamental in the
development of infants’ understanding of their physical world. Intermodal
perception is demonstrated when an infant can coordinate all five senses. For
example, biting an apple involves seeing, tasting, feeling and hearing. Also,
intermodal perception plays a vital role in the development of speech. For
example, infants notice inter-sensory repetition between the face and voice
when a person is speaking (Powell, 2021). This can help in the
synchronization of speech.
Development, Psychological, Social and Environmental factors
Although researchers treat motor
development and psychological development as different concepts, the two are
fundamentally related (Adolf & Hoch, 2019). Besides, motor development is
embedded in environmental variations. The environment enables or constrains
action (Adolf & Hoch, 2019). Furthermore, motor development is a construct
of social and cultural influences. In other words, infants development depends
on the three interrelated factors: social, psychological and environmental
list of Infant Cognitive attainments
0-1 year of age
1-2 years of age
2-3 years of age
3-4 years of age
4-5 years of age
5-12 years of age
The cognitive attainments between 0 and
1 year are consistent with Piagets sensorimotor stage. Nevertheless,
exploration develops earlier than Piaget anticipation. According to Piaget,
intensive environment investigation occurs between one and two years of age
(Collado et al., 2017).
of advanced play with toys on Development and Attention
Advanced play with toys is beneficial to
a toddlers’ development and attention. According to Yogman et al. (2018),
advanced play with toys improves a toddlers’ dexterity. Dexterity is the skill
of performing tasks with the hands. Improved dexterity is positively correlated
with positive cognitive development. Toys involving advanced paly enhance
cognitive ability and attentiveness (Yogman et al., 2018). Advanced cognitive
ability fosters focus and precision hence improving the toddlers’ attention.
The social-interactionalist perspective is
a very attractive domain to most language development researchers. This is
because social interactions form the basis for language development. Alsaadi
(2021) posits that and phonological
development of early language acquisition. There is wide recognition that how a
mother/caregiver speaks influences how a baby’s speech sounds and language
learning at large.
Anxiety in the second half of the first year
Children develop stranger anxiety in the
second half of their first year because of mental development. Children at this
stage can differentiate between the people they know and the people they do not
know. This is particularly the case if the baby is picked up suddenly by
Although stranger anxiety is a sign of
positive mental development, some factors can either worsen or solve this
condition. Some of the factors that increase stranger anxiety include a healthy
relationship with familiar people, lack of exposure to new people and
overreliance on the same people, typically parents or caregivers. On the other
hand, strangers awareness can decrease if the child is cuddled/soothed, exposed
to more strangers, and reduce time spent with parents/caregivers.
impact of Genetic and Environmental factors on Temperament
Behavioral tendencies (temperament) and
biological genetics are interrelated (., 2017). Different
children display different temperaments that may be influenced by the
environment. For example, children born in the same environment may exhibit
varying behavioral tendencies such as the intensity of crying.
Nevertheless, children may also display
different temperaments despite having similar genetics. For example, twins
brought up in different environments may exhibit different emotionality and
activity level. This proves that environmental factors influence temperament.
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(2021). Dynamic assessment in language learning; An overview and the impact of
using social media.English Language Teaching,14(8), 73.
Evans,G.W., & Sorrel,M.A. (2017). The role of
parents and best friends in children’s pro-environmentalism: Differences
according to age and gender.Journal of Environmental Psychology,54,
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Educational Psychology,11(4), 45-53.
R. (2021). Understanding the eye. InPerception and analogy(pp.
163-208). Manchester University Press.
Gray,J.C., MacKillop,J., Chen,C., &
Palmer,A.A. (2017). The genetics of human personality.Genes,
Brain and Behavior,17(3), e12439.
Garner,A., Hutchinson,J., Hirsh-Pasek,K.,
Golinkoff,R.M., & Baum,R. (2018). The power of play: A
pediatric role in enhancing development in young children.Pediatrics,
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