Habituation recovery in Young Infants






Development 2

Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, and Habituation/recovery in Young Infants

An example of classical conditioning in
infants is when a child starts crying at the sight of a needle during routine
immunization. A good example of operant conditioning in infants occurs when a
baby continues to suck a bottle that brings a sweet liquid. An example of
habituation/recovery is when a baby is startled by loud noise and begins to
look for the source of the noise in fear of attack.

Classical conditioning is important
because it helps a child to learn through association. Operant conditioning is essential
because it allows us to understand the role of reinforcement in infants’
learning. Habituation/recovery is important because it indicates that a child
is learning from their environment.

Perception in Infants

Intermodal perception is fundamental in the
development of infants’ understanding of their physical world. Intermodal
perception is demonstrated when an infant can coordinate all five senses. For
example, biting an apple involves seeing, tasting, feeling and hearing. Also,
intermodal perception plays a vital role in the development of speech. For
example, infants notice inter-sensory repetition between the face and voice
when a person is speaking (Powell, 2021). This can help in the
synchronization of speech.

Development, Psychological, Social and Environmental factors

Although researchers treat motor
development and psychological development as different concepts, the two are
fundamentally related (Adolf & Hoch, 2019). Besides, motor development is
embedded in environmental variations. The environment enables or constrains
action (Adolf & Hoch, 2019). Furthermore, motor development is a construct
of social and cultural influences. In other words, infants development depends
on the three interrelated factors: social, psychological and environmental

list of Infant Cognitive attainments

0-1 year of age

  • Attainment of skills such as smiling and

  • Focused vision

  • Reaching out and exploration

  • Making sounds such as “ma-ma.”

  • Bonding with parents

1-2 years of age

  • Understanding words and commands

  • Responding to commands

  • Identifying similar objects

  • Pointing out familiar objects

2-3 years of age

  • Identifying their reflection on the
    mirror by name

  • Imitating complex adult actions like
    feeding a baby

  • Naming objects in a picture

  • Responding to simple directions like “come
    here” or “let us go.”

  • Categorizing objects

3-4 years of age

  • Asking why questions to learn new

  • Development of awareness of the present
    and past

  • Learning by observation

  • Organizing objects according to shape
    and color

4-5 years of age

  • Counting to ten

  • Drawing the shape of a person

  • Identifying and naming multiple colors

  • Rhyming words

  • Telling where they live

5-12 years of age

  • Logical thinking about concrete events

  • Understanding conversations

  • Develops reasoning via inductive logic

The cognitive attainments between 0 and
1 year are consistent with Piagets sensorimotor stage. Nevertheless,
exploration develops earlier than Piaget anticipation. According to Piaget,
intensive environment investigation occurs between one and two years of age
(Collado et al., 2017).

of advanced play with toys on Development and Attention

Advanced play with toys is beneficial to
a toddlers’ development and attention. According to Yogman et al. (2018),
advanced play with toys improves a toddlers’ dexterity. Dexterity is the skill
of performing tasks with the hands. Improved dexterity is positively correlated
with positive cognitive development. Toys involving advanced paly enhance
cognitive ability and attentiveness (Yogman et al., 2018). Advanced cognitive
ability fosters focus and precision hence improving the toddlers’ attention.


The social-interactionalist perspective is
a very attractive domain to most language development researchers. This is
because social interactions form the basis for language development. Alsaadi
(2021) posits that and phonological
development of early language acquisition. There is wide recognition that how a
mother/caregiver speaks influences how a baby’s speech sounds and language
learning at large.

Anxiety in the second half of the first year

Children develop stranger anxiety in the
second half of their first year because of mental development. Children at this
stage can differentiate between the people they know and the people they do not
know. This is particularly the case if the baby is picked up suddenly by
someone unfamiliar.

Although stranger anxiety is a sign of
positive mental development, some factors can either worsen or solve this
condition. Some of the factors that increase stranger anxiety include a healthy
relationship with familiar people, lack of exposure to new people and
overreliance on the same people, typically parents or caregivers. On the other
hand, strangers awareness can decrease if the child is cuddled/soothed, exposed
to more strangers, and reduce time spent with parents/caregivers.

impact of Genetic and Environmental factors on Temperament

Behavioral tendencies (temperament) and
biological genetics are interrelated (., 2017). Different
children display different temperaments that may be influenced by the
environment. For example, children born in the same environment may exhibit
varying behavioral tendencies such as the intensity of crying.

Nevertheless, children may also display
different temperaments despite having similar genetics. For example, twins
brought up in different environments may exhibit different emotionality and
activity level. This proves that environmental factors influence temperament.


& Hoch,J.E. (2019). Motor development: Embodied, embedded,
Enculturated, and enabling.Annual Review of Psychology,70(1),

(2021). Dynamic assessment in language learning; An overview and the impact of
using social media.English Language Teaching,14(8), 73.

Evans,G.W., & Sorrel,M.A. (2017). The role of
parents and best friends in children’s pro-environmentalism: Differences
according to age and gender.Journal of Environmental Psychology,54,

P. (2018). Critical thinking: Conceptual framework.I-manager’s Journal on
Educational Psychology
,11(4), 45-53.

R. (2021). Understanding the eye. InPerception and analogy(pp.
163-208). Manchester University Press.

Gray,J.C., MacKillop,J., Chen,C., &
Palmer,A.A. (2017). The genetics of human personality.Genes,
Brain and Behavior
,17(3), e12439.

Garner,A., Hutchinson,J., Hirsh-Pasek,K.,
Golinkoff,R.M., & Baum,R. (2018). The power of play: A
pediatric role in enhancing development in young children.Pediatrics,

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.
  +1 718 717 2861           + 44 161 818 7126           [email protected]
  +1 718 717 2861         [email protected]