Cultural diversity and a nation of immigrants

● MAP 3.3 CULTURAL DIVERSITY: A NATION OF IMMIGRANTS Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2012, tabulation by author.

subculture a category of people who share dis- tinguishing attributes, beliefs, values, and/or norms that set them apart in some significant manner from the dominant culture.

Copyright 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

 

 

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Ethnic Subcultures Some people who have unique shared behaviors linked to a common racial, language, or nationality background iden- tify themselves as members of a specific subculture, whereas others do not. Examples of ethnic subcul- tures include African Americans, Latinos/ Latinas (Hispanic Americans), Asian Americans, and Native Americans. Some analysts include “white ethnics” such as Irish Americans, Italian Americans, and Polish Americans. Others also include Anglo Americans (Caucasians).

Although people in ethnic subcultures are dis- persed throughout the United States, a concentra- tion of members of some ethnic subcultures is visible in many larger communities and cities. For example, Chinatowns, located in cities such as San Francisco, Los Angeles, and New York, are one of the more vis- ible ethnic subcultures in the United States. By living close to one another and retaining their original cus- toms and language, first-generation immigrants can survive the abrupt changes they experience in mate- rial and nonmaterial cultural patterns. In New York City, for example, Korean Americans and Puerto Rican Americans constitute distinctive subcultures, each with its own food, music, and personal style. In San Antonio, Mexican Americans enjoy different food and music than do Puerto Rican Americans or other groups.

Subcultures provide opportunities for the expres- sion of distinctive lifestyles, as well as sometimes helping people adapt to abrupt cultural change. Subcultures can also serve as a buffer against the discrimination experienced by many ethnic or reli- gious groups in the United States. However, some people may be forced by economic or social disad- vantage to remain in such ethnic enclaves.

Countercultures A counterculture is a group that strongly rejects dominant societal values and norms and seeks alternative lifestyles (Yinger, 1960, 1982). Young people are most likely to join countercultural groups, perhaps because younger persons generally have less invested in the existing culture. Examples of countercultures include the beatniks of the 1950s, the flower children of the 1960s, the drug enthusiasts of the 1970s, and con- temporary members of nonmainstream religious sects or cults. Occupy Wall Street and its coun- terparts throughout the United States and other nations began as a counterculture because partici- pants took a stand against dominant cultural values of wealth, power, and political privilege.

Culture Shock Culture shock is the disorientation that people feel when they encounter cultures radically dif- ferent from their own and believe they cannot depend on their own taken-for-granted assump-

tions about life. When people travel to another society, they may not know how

to respond to that setting. For example, Napoleon LO7

● Even as global travel and the media make us more aware of people around the world, the distinctiveness of the Yanomamö in South America remains apparent. Are people today more or less likely than those in the past to experience culture shock upon encountering diverse groups of people such as these Yanomamö?

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● Although modernization and consumerism have changed the way of life of some subcultures, groups such as the Old Order Amish have preserved some of their historical practices, including traveling by horse-drawn carriage.

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Copyright 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

 

 

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