Communication Behavior Patterns Study



Communication Behavior Patterns



Student Name
Professor Name

Communication Behavior Patterns
Task 1
Theoretical Perspectives in Research
Theories have been historically used in all disciplines concerned with human behavior to explain the behavior of individuals and groups within populations. They help us understand the world in general and how groups are formed, function, interact with, and experience the world. There are two main perspectives that are often used with theories across the various human disciplines to understand human behavior and its interaction with its environment. These theoretical perspectives include the functionalist perspective and the conflict perspective.
Functionalist Perspective
The principal proponents of the functionalist perspective include a number of social theorists, such as Talcott Parsons, Herbert Spencer, Robert Merton, and Emil Durkheim. Functionalism sees society as a network of interrelated pieces that cooperate to keep the whole in a condition of equilibrium and balance (Bello, 2020). The functionalist viewpoint highlights how interrelated society is by emphasizing how each component impacts and is impacted by other components. It is the viewpoint that researchers that need to understand the efficacy of group performance employ the most frequently. The functionalist approach is best described by three key presumptions.
The first presumption is that organizations are mission-driven. The functionalist approach assumes that each group has one or more objectives that define what they want to accomplish (Swerdlow et al., 2020). These goals might be task-focused, social-emotional, or group-focused. However, a lot of functional perspective research has concentrated on successfully completing task-oriented goals. The cognitive sphere and the physical world are examples of task-oriented objectives.
The second assumption is that group performance differs and can be assessed. The functional perspective states that a standard is used to assess group performance. The group’s success in achieving its objectives may serve as that standard (Knox, 2019). The normative standards that specify how groups should perform often make up the standard. Typically, the foundation of these standards is a logical model (e.g., members should communicate and optimally weigh all task-relevant information). When performance falls short of this standard, interventions are developed to help groups reach their potential.
The third assumption is that external and internal factors affect group performance through the interaction process. This viewpoint holds that a group’s performance is influenced by both internal (such as member makeup and group size) and external (such as danger from the outside or time constraints) variables (Knox, 2019). Therefore, the interaction between these internal and external stimuli results in group performance. But that translation is not straightforward or isomorphic. One output can be created by several distinct inputs, just as one input can result in many different outcomes.
Additionally, inputs and outputs may interact to create a collective result. Processes that take place during group interaction serve as a mediator for the input-output relationship (e.g., communication patterns and conflict management) (Knox, 2019). Different group results result from these interaction mechanisms.
Conflict Perspective
The conflict perspective was brought forth and influenced by Karl Marx. Therefore, it is largely influenced by Marxist theoretical assumptions. The conflict perspective views society as a dynamic system. It holds that conflict is a normal element of social life that influences the distribution of power and the direction and magnitude of social change (Umanailo, 2019). Proponents of the conflict perspective argue that conflict is brought about by factors such as oppression, unequal access, exploitation, and limited resources. They hold that since no society can lack conflict, the conflict perspective is the most reliable lens through which society can be studied.
Conflict does not necessarily mean outright violence in this theoretical perspective. It encompasses serious competition, hostility, tension, and conflict over goals and values. Furthermore, the perspective does not consider conflict as a periodic occurrence but a continuous process. The conflict perspective helps researchers understand how various societal institutions help maintain some groups’ privileges while keeping others in subordinate positions (Liska, A. E. (2018).
Research Question
The research question must be formulated before beginning any research. It examines an existing area of uncertainty and makes the case for the need of a targeted investigation. Therefore, it’s crucial to develop a compelling research question. An effective research question must be original, interesting, ethical, pertinent, practical, of potential value, structured, and publishable. For this project, formulating the research question began by identifying a broad topic of interest to investigate. In this case, the broad topic of interest is communication in healthcare. Preliminary research on the topic revealed that communication is a make-or-break factor in the delivery of quality health care. In other words, the successful provision of quality health care to patients requires effective communication across different levels of health care.
There was very little information on how communication is done on the ground. However, most of the literature focused on various communication frameworks that may be applied in different health care settings. There was also meager evidence of the effectiveness of these communication frameworks. This prompted the need to close the information gap by conducting research on how communication is conducted in healthcare settings. There was a need to narrow the scope to come up with more focused research owing to the broadness of the initial research title. To this end, the research question formulated was; What are the communication behavior patterns among health care workers in hospitals?
Justification of Theoretical Perspective
The most appropriate theoretical perspective for this research project was the functionalist perspective. The main reason for choosing this perspective is its belief in societal interconnectedness. Communication among health workers is an activity that is necessary for the proper functioning of the hospital. Therefore, the functionalist perspective provides the best approach to studying this essential element of operations in health care. This approach also assumes that components in society are interdependent. This belief holds true in the health care sector, which is largely characterized by inter-professional collaboration and teamwork. A change in the communication pattern of one component of the inter-professional team will have a ripple effect on the other components, either positive or negative.
Consensus is also an assumption in the functional perspective that is relevant and applicable to communication in a hospital. There must be agreement among the inter-professional team members when handling the process of treating patients. The lack of consensus brings about disequilibrium in the health care team, which may prove detrimental to the provision of health care. This attribute of the functionalist perspective makes it relevant in understanding how consensus is achieved while communicating within health care teams.
The viewpoint also gives an ideology that aids in the maintenance of social order. In understanding societal order, the viewpoint believes that order is maintained as long as social institutions perform their respective duties. This theory also applies to societal institutions such as hospitals. It also serves as a foundation for preserving order in society, communities, and dyadic interactions. In effect, order is maintained when each component performs its function as intended. People’s duties are simply determined using the functionalist school of thought. The knowledge of a person’s specialized duty makes it simple for the person to perform. Functioning according to specified responsibilities helps to keep society and relationships in order.
Literature Review
In hospital units, effective communication is crucial for patient outcomes, staff wellness, and workplace safety. Successful cooperation depends on open and psychologically secure communication channels, as well as places where these channels can take place. It has been discovered that among hospital workers, poor teamwork is linked to a higher likelihood of psychiatric illness (Harrell et al., 2020). In essence, teamwork entails social support at work. Workplace social support is beneficial for mental health. It may be described as having access to help and support, being willing to hear concerns, and receiving job-related feedback from coworkers and bosses. Effective communication is required to be able to request and provide social assistance.
A study of the literature determined that openness and room for discussing options while avoiding confrontation, conflict escalation, and discord are the defining characteristics of effective communication in clinical cooperation (Nicotera, 2021). Research on workplace health intervention has shown similar results on the value of effective communication. So, whether it involves interpersonal relationships or generic human traits, effective workplace communication prioritizes organizational concerns above personal ones (Santo et al., 2019). Similar to organizational renewal research, it has been determined that workplace development should concentrate on shared duties, goals, and context. Research has underlined that criticism from coworkers on conduct or performance at work may undermine effective communication since it may lead to defensiveness. Although such feedback is a component of social support at work, it may also be a crucial element of effective workplace communication.
Obstacles to effective workplace communication have also been highlighted through research. These obstacles include a lack of time and space to practice proper communication due to intense situational job demands, power imbalances within organizations, protective routines, stress-related cognitive impairment, and stress-related cognitive impairment (Mousazadeh et al., 2019). Physicians and unit managers play crucial roles in hospital unit communication, however getting their involvement in unit development activities may be challenging owing to schedule and prioritization constraints (De La Garza & Lot, 2022). In hospital units, creating and executing effective staff communication appears to be an important area for therapies intended to improve both job performance and health.
Task 2
Research Methodologies
A research methodology is a description of the steps, strategies, and approaches used in a study to gather, analyze, and interpret data. More specifically, it concerns the methodical steps a researcher takes when creating a study to ensure reliable results that satisfy the aims and objectives of the research. There are three basic categories of research methodologies: mixed, quantitative, and qualitative.
Quantitative research involves the acquisition and analysis of numerical data. This approach collects and analyses data mathematically, statistically, or computationally to yield quantitative results (Taguchi, 2018). Using it, we can discover patterns and averages, develop theories, investigate causes, and extrapolate results to larger groups. This methodology uses structured tools such as polls, surveys, or questionnaires to gather in-depth and actionable data from the respondents. Sample sizes which are representative of the target population are used during the collection of data (Taguchi, 2018). The questions in the surveys, polls, and questionnaires are often close-ended and are based on the study’s objective.
Understanding concepts, viewpoints, or experiences is the aim of the qualitative research technique, which collects and examines non-numerical data (Mohajan, 2018). It may be employed to uncover precise information regarding a subject or come up with fresh research concepts. Open-ended and conversational dialogue is the main emphasis of qualitative research while gathering data. It is founded on social scientific subfields, including psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Due to this, employing qualitative research methodology enables the interviewer or researcher to go further into the responses of respondents and ask more pointed questions in an effort to understand their motivations and attitudes. Research results may be drawn more effectively if one understands how the audience makes decisions. This methodology is the most appropriate for the current research project since it can adequately be applied to research that does not require ethical approval. The research shall utilize secondary data to answer the research question. This will not involve interacting with human study subjects in the field, which requires ethical approval. Instead, it will make use of existing material on the topic under study, including literature, videos, and voice recordings.
The mixed methods approach is a research methodology that combines elements of both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies (Taguchi, 2018). It gives a broader understanding of the topic under study as it integrates the benefits of both methods. This methodology is often used in multidisciplinary settings and complex societal research.
Data Collection Methods
Exploratory qualitative data collection methods are often more focused on learning and delving deeper to identify the root reasons. Measurability constraints often lead to qualitative data collection approaches being unstructured or, in rare cases, structured. Individual interviews, qualitative surveys, focus group discussions, observations, and secondary research are some of the most popular techniques for gathering qualitative data.
An individual interview is a direct conversation between two people with a predetermined structure and objective (Kruger et al., 2019). Interview questionnaires are used to determine the interviewee’s experience or point of view regarding a topic, project, or issue. Due to its approach cases, structured approach, and high recognition, it is one of the most popular and trusted qualitative data gathering methods. Depending on the interviewer’s method, the conversation may occasionally be informal or unstructured. Still, it should always be directed at discovering the person’s opinions, values, understandings, feelings, experiences, and perceptions of an issue (Kruger et al., 2019). When researchers want participants to provide highly personalized information, one-on-one interviews are the best strategy for gathering qualitative data. A one-on-one interview is a great approach if the interviewer chooses to go farther and ask additional questions to obtain a deeper understanding.
Researchers use qualitative surveys to develop an informed hypothesis. It is also used to collect detailed information on topics of interest. The two major types of qualitative surveys are paper surveys and online surveys. Paper surveys use paper questionnaires for qualitative data collection from participants, while online surveys are prepared using online survey software and disseminated to participants through email or uploaded on websites. In both types of surveys, questions are often open-ended and solicit respondents to give as much detailed information as possible.
Focus group discussions are a type of interview conducted within a group discussion setting consisting of six to eight people (Kruger et al., 2019). The participants may agree or disagree with each other’s opinions. Focus groups enable researchers to know a group’s perception of a topic (Kruger et al., 2019). The data capture the differences in the participant’s beliefs, experiences, and practices. In observation, people and their behavior are observed in a natural setting for the purpose of collecting descriptive data. Here, the researcher gets immersed in observing the participants by assuming a participatory stance.
Secondary research entails using already existing data, which is summarized and collated to increase the research’s effectiveness (Largan & Morris, 2019). The data is obtained from research reports and similar materials available on websites, filled surveys, government and private agencies, and public libraries. Researchers mostly prefer secondary research due to its cost-effectiveness and less time-consuming process. It is also the best approach for research that does not require ethical approval since there is no direct interaction with participants (Largan & Morris, 2019). For this reason, it will be used in the current research project. The increased availability and easy access to vast amounts of data that has been collected, compiled, and archived also facilitated the choice of this data collection approach.
Data Collection
This research project employed secondary research in its data collection. Data was sourced from several qualitative studies on communication patterns in healthcare organizations and between hospital staff and their clients. This study used grounded theory techniques of constant comparison across the various studies to identify the pattern of responses from participants. was conducted to identify key categories related to communication patterns between health care practitioners (Albury et al., 2019). Each transcript’s lines, sentences, and paragraphs were examined to find terms or phrases describing healthcare professionals’ conversations. , the researchers grouped and assigned names to relevant topics and themes pertaining to practitioners’ opinions on interpersonal communication. Discussions were ongoing as themes and categories were created, and disagreements over interpretation were settled by reaching a consensus.
Task 3
Data Analysis
Data on communication patterns in healthcare organizations for this research project was obtained from qualitative studies from multiple data sources. This was done to reach an appropriate level of internal validity. The secondary data were analyzed in three steps, including the formation of themes, theme matching along communication pattern dimensions, and theme comparison across studies. Qualitative interview transcripts were independently reviewed to come up with preliminary interpretations. This was followed by discussions to refine identified themes and generate new ones. Conceptual labels were given to categorize themes according to a common subject across constructs. Themes were improved at each stage by grouping concepts with the same labels into themes and giving them broader labels. Iterations of this procedure offered a platform for comparing communication patterns among the researched healthcare organizations.
Communication patterns among health care practitioners were analyzed based on the presence or absence of seven characteristics. These characteristics include mindfulness, diversity, rich and lean communication, respectful interaction, trust, heedful interaction, and social and task-relatedness (Steenkamer et al., 2020). Diversity refers to variations in individual worldviews. Mindfulness is the ability to be open to new concepts, methods, and ways of being. Trust is an individual’s willingness to convey their vulnerabilities to another person. Rich and lean communication involve using a potent combination of communication channels to deliver messages (Steenkamer et al., 2020). Social- and task-relatedness are non-work and work-related activities and conversations, respectively. Individuals engaged in heedful interaction focus on the work at hand while being aware of how their activities impact the healthcare team (Steenkamer et al., 2020). Finally, respectful interaction entails open, self-assured, and appreciating communication between people that results in new meaning.
Based on the criteria above, data were coded for each of the seven qualities. Instancesof real-lifeuses from the researchdata had to conform with the interview results pertaining tohow much a given characteristic was present in practice. Additionally, more than halfof the participants in a given studyhad to have provided feedbackconsistent with the interpretations of the characteristics. Between 25% and 50% of respondents required statements that were consistent with the criteria’s descriptions for a characteristic to be labeled as moderate. The examples of real-world applications given in interviews and the observational data required line up in terms of how prevalent the feature was in practice. For a feature to be labeled as bad, less than 25% of respondents must provide responses that meet the standards for the attributes. Examples of real-world applications from interviews and observational data had to match the degree to which a certain feature was present.
By assessing how much each of the seven traits was present or absent collectively, it was possible to determine the general communication patterns in each practice. Data analysis revealed both fragmented and cohesive categories as a result of their conceptual ability to capture the core character of practice participants’ communication patterns. Several of the seven qualities must be met by a practice in order to have coherent communication patterns. At least four of the seven criteria must be low or fairly poor for a practice to be classified as having fragmented intra-practice communication patterns.
Results, Discussion, and Conclusion
According to data analysis, organizations’ communication patterns varied throughout the studies. After a thorough examination of how much each study’s seven characteristics were present, it was discovered that two of the studies’ communication patterns were fragmented. It was also discovered that two of them had coherent communication habits. Of the seven criteria used to examine communication patterns, mindfulness and out as the two elements that were most crucial in separating practices that had attained standardized communication from practices that were the furthest from achieving standardized communication.
Healthcare Organization Characteristics Communication Patterns
1. High diversity
Moderate mindfulness
Low trust
Low respectful interaction
Low rich and lean communication
Moderate heedful interaction
Low social and task relatedness Fragmented
2. Low diversity
Low mindfulness
Moderate trust
Moderate respectful interaction
Moderate rich and lean communication
Moderate heedful interaction
Low social and task relatedness Fragmented
3. High diversity
Moderate mindfulness
High trust
High respectful interaction
High rich and lean communication
High heedful interaction
High social and task relatedness Cohesive
4. High diversity
Moderate mindfulness
High trust
High respectful interaction
Moderate rich and lean communication
Moderate heedful interaction
High social and task relatedness Cohesive

The human aspect of medical procedures is heavily reliant on communication styles. They might be coherent or fragmented, which can be helpful when considering the difficulties of communicating across various medical specialties. Health care workers can be divided based on their communication styles to more effectively handle the unique hurdles that various groups may have regarding inter-professional communication (Burrows et al., 2020). It is crucial to note that several communication styles can exist within the same medical institution and that these styles might evolve over time. The last element is especially crucial when formulating plans for modifying and using communication patterns in order to increase inter-disciplinary interaction. Group performance often performs better when members of the group have a consistent mental picture of the fundamental goal of the group as opposed to when they do not. Knowing how communication patterns interact might help adopt communication methods in ways that encourage better, more meaningful communication without needlessly impeding the ability to accommodate actual variances between individual doctors and physician practices (Light et al., 2019).
When implementing communication techniques, it may be helpful to understand how communication patterns work in practice. For instance, if communication patterns throughout the practice are consistent, resolving EHR issues with one doctor or nurse may suffice to improve communication. It may be necessary for EHR support employees to work with each patient in situations with more distributed communication patterns to achieve the organization’s communication goals. We may further interpret this data to infer that practices with higher levels of the seven criteria may be more likely to promote communication than practices with lower levels of these characteristics by using the model of practice interactions to decode the term cohesive (Pype et al., 2018).
According to the findings of this study, practices with cohesive communication patterns showed homogenous communication, whereas practices with fragmented communication patterns showed heterogeneous communication. Those practices with the highest communication levels (high communication across all users) exhibited the lowest levels of mindfulness and respect for each other. Conversely, interactions that were most at odds with conventional communication showed a high degree of attentiveness and respect. It may be helpful to understand the communication styles of practice members to achieve more uniform communication in healthcare settings. Additionally, knowing how communication patterns relate to one another could teach important lessons for putting communication techniques into practice.
Dissemination of Findings
The following dissemination plan has been designed using criteria for applying knowledge to practice in order to guarantee that the research’s results guide practice and, as a result, maximize the benefit to patients and healthcare professionals. This has incorporated current evidence from a baseline studylooking at the use of evidence, the Scientist Knowledge Translation Plan (Esmail et al., 2020), and broader research evidence on knowledge translation (Banner et al., 2019; Graham et al., 2018). The best way to disseminate research is through a variety of media, ideally with , according to research evidence. So, in addition to providing study participants with written feedback, dissemination activities will include:
Ten interactive seminars on applying good practice principles will be held statewide.
Using online resources like webpages and social media sites like Twitter.
Webinar and video (YouTube/TED).
Reports on research that are published in full, executive summary, and plain English, as well as in peer-reviewed journals and regional healthcare periodicals.
Therefore, this proactive distribution method gives the depth to perform more in-depth interactive engagement with crucial audiences likehealth organizations and provider staff in order to impact attitudes and behavior change, as well as the breadth to reach out to different audiences.
Critique and Limitations of the Project
The study used a few studies on communication patterns in health care organizations due to the exploratory and in-depth qualitative technique. Because it takes time to conduct interviews, examine work processes, and create variables, the results are less likely to be replicated. Additionally, even if the results of this study may apply to other situations with a comparable setting, they should not be regarded as generalizable. Another drawback of this study is that it concentrated on investigating communication patterns from a viewpoint that presupposed practice participants had equal power to affect the practice regardless of position, function, or title. This study pays less emphasis to traits like authority and leadership structures, which have also been found to be essential, despite the fact that there are advantages to this strategy. Finally, as this is cross-sectional rather than longitudinal research, it is impossible to infer directionality or causation from the data in this dataset.
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