Collaborative Team-Based Approach
The case scenario is of patient M.X., a 72-year-old male in a nursing home with a diagnosis of stroke. The patient has not been consistent with the recommended preventative treatment of colonoscopy and immunization vaccine. He has a medical history of diabetes and hypertension that are not controlled due to medication nonadherence and hyperlipidemia. He is divorced. On physical examination, the blood pressure is at 180/1-3mmHg, pulse rate of 102 beats per minute, the respiration rate of 24 breaths per minute, the temperature of 990F, and SPO2 of 90% on room air. His random blood sugar was at 235mg/dl. He has difficulties speaking, one-sided body weakness, difficulty with walking, and edema +3 on the lower limb. He has no parlor and no known food and drug allergies. He does not have medical insurance.
The Collaborative Teams
The collaborative team that would deliver care to patient M.X. are the physician, nurse practitioner, pharmacist, laboratory technician, nutritionist, social worker, physical therapists, occupational therapists, and speech-language pathologists (Willenms et al., 2019). A physician conducts physical assessments, diagnoses, and follow-up visits. The physician will also prescribe medications and delegate work to the team members. The state medical board does the credentialing and licensing of a primary physician. The state medical boards also regulate physician practice.
The social workers help link community members to the available community resources. Social workers are certified by the Academy of Certified Social Workers and are licensed by the state social worker regulatory boards. Nutritionists help by providing individualized nutrition counseling. Nutritionists are certified by the board, clinical nutrition certification board, and licensed and regulated by the state. The physical therapists role is to help the patient with movement and restoring body functions. The occupational therapist will help the patient return to normal functioning, whereas a speech-language pathologist will aid in providing speech therapy. Physiotherapists are certified by institutions accredited by the Commission of Accreditation in Physical Therapy education. They are then licensed by the state and regulated by the state physiotherapy regulatory boards. Occupational therapists are certified and licensed by the respective board state and regulated by the American Occupation Therapy Association. Lastly, speech-language pathologists are certified by (ASHA) and licensed and regulated by the state.
A nurse practitioner assesses the patient and provides individualized care using the nursing process, including health education on diabetes and hypertension self-care and medication adherence. Nurse practitioners are licensed by the State Board of Nursing and certified by the state. Additionally, nursing practice is regulated by the nurse practice act enacted by the Board of Nursing. Pharmacists help in optimizing medication regimens and efficacy and reducing their adverse effects. Pharmacists obtain certifications after completion of pharmacy education in accredited schools. They are licensed in the various states they practice. The State Board of Pharmacy regulates pharmacy practice in the US.
Indicators and Determinants of Health That Would Impact the Case
The indicators that would influence this case are that the patient has a comorbid illness such as diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesteremia with stroke. The determinants of health affecting this case include the patients lifestyle, age, sex, language, education level, accessibility, and cost of health care. According to healthy people 2020 (n.d.), diabetes and hypertension are among other health indicators used to describe the health status of individuals. Various diseases affect individuals of different sexes and ages. However, older persons are more susceptible to communicable and noncommunicable diseases due to decreased organ function related to aging (Jaul & Barron, 2017). Higher-income and social status contributes to health access through affordability of medical insurance, education, and better health. Individuals with a high level of education are more likely to have knowledge of self-management that promote healthy lifestyles (World Health Organization, 2017). Additionally, the availability of social amenities such as hospitals with adequate health care providers and resources at a cheaper cost enhances efficiency, access, and affordability of health care. Moreover, individuals can access health care to seek preventative treatment and manage existing illnesses. Behaviors such as smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, and stress significantly challenge interventions to manage diseases and maintain health and wellbeing.
Impact of Collaborative Team-Based Approach
The will affect the patient and the healthcare team. A collaborative team-based approach promotes high-quality patient-centered care characterized by better disease management and patient outcomes, reducing the length of hospital stay and the cost of health care (Busari et al., 2017). The care provided is also safe with minimal errors, preventing hospital-acquired injuries and infections. Moreover, when patients receive better services, there is increased patient satisfaction. Patients and their families are involved in every management step in these settings while applying shared decision-making that enhances treatment adherence.
Collaboration enhances effectiveness in care provision for the healthcare team because it enables the staff to complement their roles (Rosen et al., 2018). Role sharing and delegation help relieve staff burnout due to work overload. Additionally, collaboration enhances cooperation, improved problem-solving, and decision making, thus minimizing errors and providing a broader view, knowledge, and skills on patient management. Moreover, a collaborative team-based approach enhances interdisciplinary learning, which aids in professional development, confidence, expertise, and competence. When staff work in a team, they get motivated and satisfied to provide optimal patient-centered care.
Financial and Resource Challenges for Consumers and Insurance Companies for the Collaborative Team-Based Model
Maintaining a is complex and faces various systemic challenges, especially with financing. Enrolling in these models requires group pay efforts for the patients because single pay efforts are expensive (Carlo et al., 2018). However, the uptake of this model is minimal because group pays accompanied by numerous deductibles that make it expensive. The implementation and maintenance of this model greatly depend on the finances. Most of these models have low reimbursements from insurance companies. Additionally, some professionals receive inadequate resources and remunerations, resulting in biases, conflicts, and dissatisfaction (Gilles et al., 2020).
Advantages of Using A Collaborative Team-Based Approach
This model of healthcare delivery facilitates a collectivist leadership in the healthcare organization. Collaboration helps increase efficiency and effectiveness in tasks, thus enabling the organization to achieve its set goals and attract more consumers of healthcare (Rosen et al., 2018). Additionally, this model enhances employee engagement and participation, essential in building relationships and employee retention. Including the patients and their families in decisions regarding their care helps build trust among its consumers. Furthermore, this model motivates staff to be creative and innovative and promotes learning, thus increasing satisfaction and preventing attrition. Other leadership skills such as communication, delegation, decision making, conflict resolution, problem-solving, and management of resources are also enhanced through collaborative leadership (Rosen et al., 2018). Therefore, a a culture that eases the implementation of leadership roles.
Busari, J. O., Moll, F. M., & Duits, A. J. (2017). Understanding the impact of interprofessional collaboration on the quality of care: a case report from a small-scale resource limited health care environment.Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare,10, 227234. https://doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S140042
Carlo, A., Untzer, J., Ratzliff, A., & Cerimele, J. (2018). Financing for collaborative carea narrative review. Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry, 5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40501-018-0150-4
Gilles, I., Filliettaz, S. S., Berchtold, P., & Peytremann-Bridevaux, I. (2020). Financial Barriers Decrease Benefits of Interprofessional Collaboration within Integrated Care Programs: Results of a Nationwide Survey.International Journal of Integrated Care,20(1), 10. https://doi.org/10.5334/ijic.4649
Healthy People 2020 (n.d.). Health indicators. https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/leading-health-indicators/2020-LHI-Topics
Jaul, E., & Barron, J. (2017). Age-related diseases and clinical and public health implications for the 85years old and over population.Frontiers in Public Health,5, 335. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2017.00335
Rosen, M. A., DiazGranados, D., Dietz, A. S., Benishek, L. E., Thompson, D., Pronovost, P. J., & Weaver, S. J. (2018). Teamwork in healthcare: Key discoveries enabling safer, high-quality care. The American Psychologist, 73(4), 433450. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000298
Willems, L.M., Kurka, N., & Bohmann, F. (2019). Tools for your stroke team: adapting crew-resource management for acute stroke care. Practical Neurology, 19,36-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/practneurol-2018-001966
World Health Organization. (2017, February 3). Determinants of health. https://www.who.int/news-room/questions-and-answers/item/determinants-of-health
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