Carbohydrates in Health and Diseases

Instructions: Using what youve learned from the lectures + reading in this class, fill in the blanks and answerALLquestions on the outline in aDIFFERENT COLOR. In order to earn any points, the outline must be complete, meaning every question is answered. Any blank questions will earn 0 points for the entire outline.

Week 6

Carbohydrates in Health and Disease


1. Carbohydrate, primarily as ____________(type of sugar), provides energy to the body. Blood __________levels are maintained by the hormones ____________ & ____________.

2. When blood ___________ increases, _____________ is secreted, which allows ____________ to be taken into the cells.

3. When blood ___________ decreases, _____________ is secreted, which allows ____________ to be released from the _______________.

4. Insulin is produced by the __________________ of the ___________________.

5. Diabetes is characterized by _______________________. This occurs either because insufficient _____________ is produced or because of a ________________in the bodys sensitivity to it.

6. High blood glucose levels from uncontrolled diabetes damages tissues of the _______________, ______________, _______________, _______________, and ______________ and can lead to ___________________, ___________________, and ____________________.

7. People of __________________, __________________, and __________________ decent are at greater risk for Type 2 diabetes

8. Describe the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes? (How does each type develop? How is insulin involved? Etc)

9. Complete the following with blood values associated with normal, prediabetes, and diabetes:

  HbA1C (%) Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) (mg/dL) Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) (mg/dL)


10. What are 6 risk factors for Type 2 diabetes?



11. What are the 5 risk factors for Gestational diabetes?

12. Diabetes can be managed by ______________, __________________, and _________________.

13. How does exercise help with diabetes management?

14. Dietary recommendations for people with diabetes include a well-balanced diet with a focus on healthy carbs and fats. Name a few examples of each:

a. Healthy Carbs:

b. Healthy Fats:

15. Maintaining a healthy body __________________ with diet and exercise is recommended for people with diabetes.

16. What does it mean to eat consistently?

17. What are the two best strategies for diabetes remission?

18. Hypoglycemia is low blood glucose. In healthy people, it can be treated by ____________________________, ________________________ and _____________________.

19. __________________ in your mouth produce ____________ when they digest carbohydrates, which can lead to dental caries (cavities).

20. Diets high in _________________ may reduce the risk of heart disease, high blood glucose, bowel disorders, and colon cancer.


Week 7


1. Lipids are a group of organic compounds, which do not dissolve in water. The 3 types of lipids are ____________________, ____________________, and ____________________.

2. Name 2 sources of the following fats: – Animal fats: ________________________, _________________________ – Plant fats: ________________________, ___________________________

3. ___________________, commonly referred to as fat, are the type of lipid that is most abundant in our food and in our bodies. They are made up of a molecule of __________________ with three _____________________ attached.


4. Fatty acid chains may differ from one another in the number of carbons in the chain and the type of bond between the carbons. This bonding gives particular characteristics to each type of triglyceride. Fill in the following table about the 5 types of fatty acids:

Type of fatty acid Structure at room temperature(liquid or solid) Double bond characteristics(how many, where are they?) Food sources (at least 2)
Omega 6      
Omega 3      


5. Fats become rancid when exposed to _________________. To protect fats from becoming rancid, food manufacturers use the process of ___________________, which takes _________________ fatty acids and makes them more __________________. This process creates ___________ fats.

6. Phospholipids contain a ____________ molecule with two ____________ and a _________ group. They can mix in both water and fat. __________________ is the most common.

7. Dietary cholesterol comes from ______________________________________________.

8. Bile is produced in the _________________ and stored in the ___________________.

9. Describe the action of bile:

10. Triglycerides are broken down into ______________________ and ______________________.

11. In the small intestine, products of fat digestion form ____________________, which allow lipids to be absorbed. Inside the mucosal cell, contents of fat digestion are incorporated into a __________________________, which enter into the _____________ vessel.(see Fig 5.9 on page 124 for help)

12. Lipoproteins are lipid transport molecules which contain a coating of _________________, _______________, and ________________. This allows lipids to transport around the body.

13. Describe the following lipoproteins by filling in the chart.(see Fig 5.11 on page 127 for help)

Type of lipoprotein Where do they come from(where are they made?) What are they carrying? Main function?


14. Which essential fatty acids are used to make eicosanoids that INCREASE inflammation, blood clotting, and blood pressure? _______________

15. Which essential fatty acids that are used to make eicosanoids that DECREASE inflammation, blood clotting, and blood pressure? ______________

16. Describe the process of atherosclerosis and how it may lead to a heart attack or stroke. (What are the roles of immune cells and LDL, how does plaque buildup?)(See Fig 5.16 on page 133 for help)

Week 8

Lipid Recommendations

1. What are 5 risk factors for heart disease?

2. What 2 TYPES of fatty acids increase risk for heart disease? Give one FOOD SOURCE for each.

3. What 2 TYPES of fatty acids decrease risk for heart disease? Give one FOOD SOURCE for each.

4. To decreased heart disease, we should _______________ LDL and __________________ HDL.

5. Fill in the following tables about blood cholesterol:

Total Cholesterol Level Category
Less than 200 mg/dL  
200-239 mg/dL  
240 mg/dL and above  



LDL Cholesterol Level Category
Less than 100 mg/dL  
100 129 mg/dL  
130- 159 mg/dL  
160- 189 mg/dL  
190 mg/dL and above  



  HDL Level
  At Risk Desirable


6. The DRI for Total Fat intake is _______________% of total Calories and the DRI for Saturated Fat intake is _________% of total Calories. Trans fats should be _______________ .

7. Why do children have increased needs for fatty acids?

8. Do men need more or less grams of essential fatty acids compared to women? _______________

9. Does dietary cholesterol ALWAYS contribute to blood cholesterol? (yes or no) _____________

10. Calories from fat, and grams of ______________, __________________, and _______________ are found on a Nutrition Facts food label.

11. If a food has ____________ grams of trans fat, it can be labeled as 0g trans fat on the label.

12. What criteria allow a food to be labeled as:(See Fig 5.20 on page 141 for help)

a. Fat free:__________________________________________________________

b. Reduced fat:_______________________________________________________

c. Low fat: __________________________________________________________

Energy Metabolism


1. The two types of metabolic reactions are _________________ and _________________ reactions.


2. Catabolism refers to reactions where ___________________________ are ________________ to ______________________.


3. Anabolism refers to reactions where ___________________________ are _________________ to build ______________________.


4. The 3 nutrients that provide us with energy are ____________________, ____________________, and ___________________.


5. In our body, we convert calorie energy to cellular energy, which is known as ____________.


6. Proteins are broken down through the catabolic reaction called ______________________.


7. Carbohydrates (glucose) are broken down through the catabolic reaction called ______________.


8. Fatty acids are broken down through the catabolic reaction called ______________________. (This is the process of burning fatty acids by converting them to Acetyl-CoA).


9. Which macronutrient is the only one that can be burned anaerobically? ___________________


10. To use amino acids for energy, we have to remove the ____________________ through a process called _____________________.


11. What is the intermediate molecule that all macros are converted to? ____________________


12. The body will synthesize proteins that it _____________________. _______________ amino acids can be used to make glucose. And all excess amino acids will be converted into ____________________ and stored as ________________________.


13. The conversion of glucose to its storage form, _______________, is called ___________________.


14. What happens to excess glucose? ______________________________________


15. The synthesis of fatty acids from Acetyl-CoA is called _______________________.


16. Can we use fat to build protein or glucose? (yes or no?): ____________



17. Describe what is happening to macronutrients during each of the following states: (what macronutrients are used for fuel, what are they converted to, and what are they used for?)


a. Fed State (immediately after eating)

b. Post-absorptive State (several hours after eating)

c. Fasting (18-48 hours with no food)



Week 9

Body Weight, Obesity, & Energy Balance

1. Body Mass Index (BMI) is useful in evaluating health risks related to weight and takes into account ________________ and _________________.

2. Fill in the following table for adult BMI ranges:

Weight Status BMI (kg/m2)
Normal weight  
Obese Class I  
Obese Class II  
Obese Class III  


3. Does the above BMI scale apply to all populations? For who is it different?

4. For what populations is obesity rates higher?

5. _____________________________ is the enzyme involved in storage/release of triglycerides. On women, this enzyme is more active at the ___________________ and ___________________, and on men, it is more active at the ____________________.

6. Fat cell numbers increase 3 times during our lives, when?

7. When does fat cell size increase? When we lose weight as adults, what happens to our fat cells?

8. Name 5 different health risks associated with excess body fat:

9. A healthy body fat percentage is __________% for young healthy females and __________% for young healthy males. Body fat _______________________ with age.

10. _______________________ fat is associated with the _______________ body shape and does NOT increase health risk. ___________________ fat is associated with ________________ body shape and DOES increase health risk.

11. __________________ fat is more metabolically active and produces inflammatory molecules.

12. Energy balance occurs when the amount of ______________________ is equal to the amount of ______________________, which causes weight maintenance.

13. When you walk by the cookie store at the mall and smell the fresh baked cookie smell, you suddenly crave a cookie. Which is stimulated, hunger or appetite? ______________________

14. Satiety is caused by __________________ in the stomach, ___________________ of the stomach/small intestine, and in the blood.

15. Total energy expenditure includes energy expended from ______________________(_______), ________________________(_________), and ______________________________.

16. Body shape and size is largely determined by the ___________ that people inherit along with ________________ factors and _______________ choices.

17. Describe the hormones involved in weight control. (Where are they released, what do they do?) – Ghrelin – Peptide YY – Leptin

18. To lose one pound of fat, you need to decrease intake by or burn _______________ Calories.


19. A rate of healthy weight loss or weight gain is about __________ pounds/week.

20. Muscle makes up how much of our total body weight? _________________

21. What are those inflammatory molecules called that activate the immune system to repair muscle injury? _________________

22. What is the process of new muscle growth called? ______________________

23. Protein and hormones are required for muscle repair and growth. When does this vital repair process usually occur? ________________________


Week 10

Weight loss strategies

1. What are the factors to consider when deciding whether someone needs to lose weight?


2. Some components to a healthy weight loss program are ____________________________, _________________________, and ____________________________.


3. Describe at least 2 strategies to reduce calorie intake.

4. The Physical Activity Guidelines for of moderate-intensity or ________ minutes of each week, as well as ______ days of muscle strengthening exercise.

5. Describe the metabolic adaption (adaptive thermogenesis) that happens when we lose weight and discuss what the consequence of that is.


6. Why are quick fixes like restrictive diets or juice cleanses not a good idea for weight loss?

7. Common types of weight-loss medications/supplements work by either reducing __________________ or decreasing ______________________________ in the intestine.


8. Over the are not regulated by the __________ and are not proven to be effective at ____________________________________ once they are discontinued.


9. If an individual has a BMI ______________ or a BMI ______________ with one or more obesity-related health risk factors may benefit from weight loss surgery.


10. Describe what happens in each of the 3 types of bariatric surgeries. – Adjustable gastric band: – Gastric sleeve: – Roux-en-Y gastric bypass:


Eating DisordersNote:in addition to watching the Eating Disorders video on Canvas, read pages 3030-310 in your textbook to help with the following questions

1. When do many eating disorders develop? ______________________


2. In general, what is the body image and self-esteem of individuals with an eating disorder?(See Table 9.3 on page 304 for help)




3. Eating disorders are psychological disorders that involve abnormal eating behaviors. They are caused by a combination of _______________________, _______________________, and _______________________ factors.(see Fig 9.22 on page 304 for help)


4. Fill in the following table about the three eating disorders:(the descriptions in the video + on pages 306-308 can help with this question)

Eating Disorder Behavior(What are they doing) Symptoms(physical consequences to their body)
Anorexia Nervosa    
Bulimia Nervosa    
Binge Eating Disorder    



5. The major complication of binge-eating disorder are the health problems associated with _________________.


6. The most common eating disorder is __________________________________.




1. Water makes up about ________% of our total body weight.

2. Describe the process of osmosis.

3. Can I drink all the water I need for next week today & store it for later use? (Yes or No): _______

4. What 3 physiological symptoms help us stimulate thirst?





5. What does the hormone Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) do?

6. Would we survive longer without food or without water? ____________

7. What are some symptoms of dehydration?

8. In water intoxication, the most dangerous symptom is __________________________, or low, diluted sodium in the blood, which can lead to __________________________ and cause death.

9. The AI for water for men is about _________ cups, and for women its about ________ cups.






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