External link to The development of racism in human societies

The development of racism in human societies

THE DEVELOPMENT OF RACISM Although beliefs in the superiority and inferiority of different groups have been his- torically persistent in human societies (recall the universality of ethnocentrism), the belief that such differences are linked to racial types is a relatively new idea, one that did not arise forcefully until the eighteenth century in Europe. Over the follow- ing century and a half, a number of […]

External link to The functions of racism society

The functions of racism society

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 19 nature of these differences are accepted uncritically by many. The belief in the innate behavioral differences between men and women has been referred to as sexism, but it is obvious that the foundation of this ideology is similar to that of racism. In recent years, the term racism has often been used in a sweeping and imprecise fashion, describing almost any […]

External link to The ideology of racism system

The ideology of racism system

THE IDEOLOGY OF RACISM _.\s a belief system, or ideology, racism is structured around three basic ideas: • Humans are divided naturally into different physical types. • Such physical traits as people display are intrinsically related to their culture, personality, and intelligence. • The differences among groups are innate, not subject to change, and on the basis of their genetic inheritance, some groups are innately […]

External link to The arbitrary boundaries of race

The arbitrary boundaries of race

THE ARBITRARY BouNDARIES oF RACE Each heterogeneous society takes whatever are per- ceived as important physical differences among people and builds a set of racial cat- egories into which those people are placed. But these categories are fully arbitrary. Different societies will use different criteria with which to assign people racially, 3 Such reasoning and its resultant consequences are precisely what characterized-and for whites, justified-the […]

External link to The social construction of race

The social construction of race

THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF RACE Many popular ideas are of dubious scientific validity; race is certainly among these. But as Andre Beteille has pointed out, “Sociological analysis is concerned not so     CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 15 much with the scientific accuracy of ideas as with their social and political conse- quences” (1969:54). Most social and biological scientists today agree that the idea of race […]

External link to The bases of racial classification

The bases of racial classification

THE BASES OF RACIAL CLASSIFICATION That a person from one genetic population can inter- breed with a person from any other population creates a second difficulty in dealing with the notion of race: answering the question “What are the characteristics that dif- ferentiate racial types?” Physical anthropologists distinguish major categories of hu- man traits as either phenotypes-visible anatomical features such as skin color, hair texture, […]

External link to The dominant cultural system

The dominant cultural system

CH APT ER I INTRODUCTION 9 Although this point may seem like a relatively minor theoretical one, it is of im- portance when ethnic groups in a society begin to blend into the dominant cultural system. Sociologists have traditionally assumed that as groups integrate into the mainstream society, the basis of retention of ethnicity diminishes. But whether peo- ple continue to practice ethnic ways may […]

External link to The nature of ethic relations

The nature of ethic relations

C HARACTERISTICS OF ETHNIC GROUPS U:-;IQUE C ULTURAL TRAJTS Basically, ethnic groups are groups within a larger society that display a unique set of cultural traits. The sociologist Melvin Tumin more     8 PART I THE NATURE OF ETHN IC RELATIONS specifically describes an ethnic group as “a social group which, within a larger cul- tural and social system, claims or is accorded special […]

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