Please answer original forum with a minimum of 250 words and respond to both students separately with a minimum of 100 words each
page 1 Original Forum with References
page 2 Judith response with references
nikole response with references
What are the major diagnostic models and techniques used in OD programs? How are these models used to identify system parameters and recognize, in turn, the symptoms, problems, and causes that result in ineffective organizations?
Hershey and Blanchard bring the aspects of Situational leadership and how those impact leadership within an organization. These are known as: Directing, Coaching, Supporting, and Delegating. Michael Fullan listed certain necessary characteristics as an imperial important part of organizational leadership which are as follows: Moral purpose Understanding, Relationship building, Knowledge creation and sharing, as well as Coherence making. When discussing diagnostic models in organizational development one that was discussed in depth this week was the Lewins Model. This model uses unfreezing, change and refreezing. Diagnostic models are designed to better understand how an organization is function in the heart of it. It is a way to understand the operational function within an organization from an external vantage point. This allows to better address issues or problems and to gauge where improvements need to be made. Strategic planning and program evaluation are often terms that are referred to. If an organization has no strategy of what they want to achieve it becomes a ship without a captain, aimlessly sailing around at sea.
When an organization needs to know more about themselves, it is good to address them with open eyes and open arms. Diagnostic models can assist in those instances. In many ways they will expose how the organization is really doing. It is a much deeper understanding of how and why the organization is doing what it is doing. Effectively initiating organizational development, where it is needed. It is crucial for a business to understand what type of environment it is operating in. Many businesses fail because they are unable to change the way they operate. An example of a successful Lewins model during COVID-19 is the way classes were conducted. Microsoft and Google assisted in the massive change of online learning. Many institutions pushed teachers to become comfortable with the concept. It may have been a hard road for institutions but it was mastered and children began to do remote learning.
– J. Abregano
Burke, W. (1992). Organization Development: A process of learning and changing. (2nd ed.).
OD Network Tools – Weisbord Six-Box Model
Burke, W. W., & Litwin, G. H., (1992). A causal model of organizational performance and change. Journal of Management, 18(3), 523-545. Retrieved from
Ann Howard & Associates (1994),Diagnosis for Organizational Change, Guildford Press, New York, NY.
Falletta, S. V. (2005). Organizational Diagnostic Models: A Review and Synthesis.Leadersphere, Inc.Retrieved from https://www.iei.liu.se/fek/frist/723g16/files/1.120328/Orgmodels.pdf
Kaplan, R. (2005). How the the . Retrieved from:
Mercer Delta Consulting, LLC (2004). The congruence model: A roadmap for understanding organization performance. Retrieved from
Strategy Directive MA 208-2 (n.d.). 6.3 Steps of Tichy for change in organizations. Retrieved from
Tichy, N. M., Hornstein, H. A., & Nisberg, J. N. (1977). Organization diagnosis and intervention strategies: Developing emergent pragmatic theories of change. In W. W. Burke (Ed.), Current Issue and Strategies in Organization development (pp. 361-383). New York, NY: Human Sciences Press.
This week we are learning diagnostic models and how they are used in organizations. According to this weeks lesson, organizations use diagnostic models to Assess the current level of functioning to design appropriate change interventions. (Week 4 Lesson, APU). The world is constantly evolving and there are always improvements an organization can make to get to the next level of success. If organizations are not willing to adapt to change, they will run the risk of failure. Some of the major diagnostic models include Lewins Change Management Model. This model is known as Unfreeze Change Refreeze. The unfreezing stage is when an organization breaks down the norm and challenge the belief system with new ways of doing things. The change part is when people begin to act in ways that support the change process. Refreezing is when organizations are Making sure that the changes are used all the time; and that they are incorporated into everyday business. (Week 4 Lesson, APU). Another diagnostic model is Leavitts Diamond Model. Leavitts model is designed on structure for understanding the connection between the key factors in an organization and building an integrated change strategy. The diamond has four main components, people, work, structure, and technology (lapaas.com). Leavitts believes that for an organization to be successful it needs to build upon these components. For this tool to be successful it should be done in two steps. The first step is to define each component in the diamond and its purpose. The next step is to analyze the impact of the proposed change and how the change would impact the organization.
Lapaas, T. (2021, March 23).Leavitt’s diamond – an integrated approach to change. Lapaas
Digital Marketing Company and Institute. https://lapaas.com/leavitts-diamond-an-
Week 4 Lesson, APUS
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