Article Summary and Application to Nursing Practice

Article Summary and Application to Nursing Practice

MR. R, 60, EXPERIENCES a sudden onset of left upper extremity paresis and right-sided visual loss. He re- ports an episode of similar symptoms a few days ago that resolved, so he didn’t seek medical attention. He’s 68 in (173 cm) tall and weighs 210 lb (95 kg) with a body mass index of 31.9. His health history includes type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dys- lipidemia, and myocardial infarction. His medications include a calcium channel blocker, an oral antihyper- glycemic agent, and a statin. He uti- lizes diet and exercise to try to con- trol his weight. He has no history of smoking.

Mr. R arrives at the nearest ED within 30 minutes of symptom on- set, where he’s rapidly triaged and assessed. A stat noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) scan,

performed within 25 minutes of ar- rival, doesn’t reveal any pathology, such as cerebral hemorrhage, to ex- plain the sudden onset of stroke-like signs and symptoms, which are rap- idly resolving without treatment. Is Mr. R experiencing a transient isch- emic attack (TIA)?

The annual incidence of TIA in the United States is estimated to be 200,000 to 500,000. About half of those who experience a TIA don’t report it, representing lost opportu- nities for both intervention and stroke prevention. The actual inci- dence isn’t known due to under- reporting.1

In the past, TIA was diagnosed based on abrupt onset and duration of characteristic neurologic signs and symptoms that resolved spontane- ously within 24 hours.2 However,

this definition is now considered inadequate because even episodes of relatively brief ischemia can cause permanent brain injury.

Today, the definition is tissue-based rather than time-based. A TIA is now defined as a transient episode of neu- rologic dysfunction caused by focal brain, spinal cord, or retinal ischemia without acute infarction.3,4,5 Diagnosis is based on findings of an abrupt onset of focal neurologic signs or symptoms without evidence of brain tissue in- farction on imaging.4 The current defi- nition offers a significant opportunity for timely interventions to prevent a TIA from evolving into a stroke.3

Because a TIA results from cere- brovascular disturbances that exist on the same continuum as stroke, it’s a medical emergency requiring prompt assessment and intervention.4 This

Transient ischemic attack

Heed the warning

By Vince Vacca, MSN, RN, CCRN, SCRN

Copyright © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.

 

 

www.Nursing2014.com June l Nursing2014 l 31

Copyright © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.

 

 

32 l Nursing2014 l June www.Nursing2014.com

article discusses the nurse’s responsi- bility to recognize signs and symp- toms of TIA and to respond quickly and appropriately with current, evidence-based interventions.

Ominous warning TIA can be a precursor to stroke be- cause both are caused by the same cerebrovascular disease processes. TIA is associated with a 9.9% risk of stroke at 2 days postevent, 13.4% at 30 days, and 10% to 17% at 90 days.1,6-8 The post-TIA stroke risk is different for each patient based on individual modifiable risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, abnormal blood lipid profile, smoking status, sedentary lifestyle, and obesity) and nonmodifiable risk factors (age, gender).9 TIA affects more males than females and more Blacks than Whites, but the rate increases for all population groups with advancing age.4 (See Risk factors for TIA and stroke.) Although many TIAs resolve spontaneously, others progress to stroke with permanent neurologic deficits in less than 24 hours.1,10

Given the association with vascular disease, it should be no surprise that a TIA also raises the risk of other vascular

events, such as unstable angina, myo- cardial infarction, peripheral artery disease, and renal artery disease.11

Typically three clinical features suggest a TIA: symptom onset within seconds of the event, no history of similar episodes, and absence of nonspecific symptoms such as gas- trointestinal distress, chest pain, or shortness of breath.1 No one can pre- dict which TIAs are likely to prog- ress, so they’re considered medical emergencies and evaluated as poten- tial strokes. Rapid recognition and response is essential to reduce the risk of disability and death.4,8,10

As the American Heart Association/ American Stroke Association (AHA/ ASA) points out, time lost is brain lost.12 Rapid, accurate history taking, clinical evaluation, and diagnosis are essential to differentiate TIA from acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke or other central nervous sys- tem pathology.

Variable signs and symptoms A thorough baseline neurologic assessment includes evaluation of mental status, cranial nerve function, motor function, sensory function, and reflexes. For details, see “Per- forming a Focused Neurologic Assessment” in the December issue of Nursing2013.

Signs and symptoms of TIA vary depending on the cerebral vascular territory affected. (See Mapping the brain’s blood supply.) For example, a TIA affecting anterior cerebral artery circulation, which includes cerebral blood vessels originating from the carotid arteries, can manifest as hemiparesis, hemianesthesia, contra- lateral motor or sensory deficits of the face or extremities, amaurosis fugax (temporary monocular blind- ness), a “shade” descending over the line of vision, or transient graying, fogging, or blurred vision.13

Signs and symptoms of a TIA affect- ing the posterior cerebral artery circu- lation, which includes cerebral blood

vessels originating from the vertebral and basilar arteries, can include dysar- thria, dysphagia, diplopia, bilateral blindness, unilateral or bilateral motor and sensory weakness, quadriparesis, ataxia, vertigo, and dizziness.13

The risk of progression to stroke from TIA is greatest with carotid artery stenosis rather than lacunar pathology (occlusion of smaller, distal arteries) or cardioembolic sources.4,14 Because TIA and minor strokes are often caused by unstable plaque affecting large arteries that supply extensive brain tissue territo- ries, strokes that follow TIA may be severely disabling or fatal.14

In many cases, TIA signs and symptoms resolve before the patient can be evaluated, making a thorough patient history essential for diagnosis and management.

Assessment tools The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) is a simple, validated, and reliable tool for assess- ing initial stroke severity. It’s been shown to predict mortality in acute ischemic stroke in several studies.15

Every patient with stroke-like signs and symptoms, including those suggesting a TIA, should undergo an NIHSS evaluation on presentation. The 15-item systematic assessment tool provides a quantitative measure of stroke-related neurologic deficits by helping clinicians evaluate the effect of acute ischemic infarction on level of consciousness, language, ex- tinction and inattention (formerly neglect), visual-field loss, extraocular movements, motor strength, ataxia, dysarthria, and sensory loss. Unlike patients with established strokes, patients experiencing a TIA will have either normal scores (if signs and symptoms have resolved) or scores rapidly improving to normal. For details about scoring, visit http://www.nihstrokescale.org.

Another assessment tool used in ad- dition to the NIHSS is the ABCD2 score,

Risk factors for TIA and stroke34

Nonmodifiable

• age • gender • race/ethnicity • heredity

Modifiable

• hypertension • cardiac disease (coronary artery

disease, AF, valvular disorders)

• diabetes mellitus • hypercholesterolemia • smoking • excessive alcohol use • physical inactivity • obesity.

Copyright © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.

 

 

www.Nursing2014.com June l Nursing2014 l 33

which helps clinicians determine short-term stroke risk after a TIA. Rang- ing from 0 to 7, the ABCD2 score is cal- culated by adding points for five factors: Age, BP, Clinical features of TIA, Dura- tion, and Diabetes.16 The patient’s score provides decision support for hospital- ization of higher-risk patients or dis- charge of lower-risk patients from the ED to complete their TIA evaluation in an outpatient setting.2,11 Higher ABCD2 scores on initial evaluation indicate stroke risk at 2, 7, 30, and 90 days. For example, an ABCD2 score of 6 confers a 2-day stroke risk of 8%, which is con- sidered high-risk.1

Hospitalization for observation is generally not indicated for patients with ABCD2 scores of 0 to 3 (2-day stroke risk, 1%), unless there’s an- other indication such as new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF).1,6,17 Some fa- cilities have an outpatient TIA clinic to which these patients are referred for further evaluation, usually within 1 to 2 days.

For most patients with an ABCD2 score of 4 or 5 (2-day stroke risk, 4.1%), hospital observation is indi- cated. Head and neck imaging should take place during the ED admission. If stenosis of greater

than 50% is identified in either ca- rotid artery, hospital admission is recommended.

For patients with an ABCD2 score of 6 or 7 (2-day stroke risk, 8.1%), hospital admission is recommend- ed.1,6,11 If a patient already hospital- ized for any reason develops acute onset of neurologic symptoms sug- gesting TIA, a rapid response team leading to neurologic expertise or a code stroke is indicated.

Diagnostic studies Lab testing can help rule out meta- bolic and hematologic causes of

Mapping the brain’s blood supply33

This is a view of the brain’s ventral surface with the right cerebellar hemisphere and the tip of the right temporal lobe removed.

Anterior communicating Recurrent

artery of Heubner

Anterior cerebral

Internal carotid

Posterior communicating

Posterior cerebral

Superior cerebellar

Labyrinthine

Anterior inferior cerebellar

Vertebral

Posterior spinal

Anteromedial central

Middle cerebral

Anterior choroidal

Anterolateral central

Posteromedial central

Basilar

Pontine

Anterior spinal

Posterior inferior

cerebellar

Copyright © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.

 

 

34 l Nursing2014 l June www.Nursing2014.com

neurologic signs and symptoms and may include a comprehensive meta- bolic panel, complete blood cell count, coagulation profile, cardiac biomarkers, erythrocyte sedimenta- tion rate, and lipid profile based on individual presentation, assessment findings, and risk factors.

Neuroimaging studies include brain CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Estimates are that one-third of patients meeting traditional TIA crite- ria (such as signs and symptoms last- ing less than 24 hours) have evidence of infarction on brain imaging. These lesions, detectable by MRI, confirm that the episode was caused by cere- bral ischemia.1 By current standards, if a patient presents with transient signs and symptoms that have rapidly reversed but imaging reveals evidence of infarction, he or she has an estab- lished stroke, not a TIA.

AHA Class I recommendations for TIA workup include neuroimaging evaluation within 24 hours of symp- tom onset, consisting of brain tissue evaluation by CT or MRI, and nonin- vasive imaging of the craniocervical vessels, which can be accomplished with ultrasound, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), or computed tomography angiography (CTA).

The AHA guidelines recommend a stat noncontrast CT scan within 25 minutes of arrival in the ED for patients presenting with stroke symptoms and inpatients with sus- pected stroke. If this isn’t possible, the AHA recommends neuroimaging within 24 hours of symptom onset.2,8

Results of the noncontrast CT must be interpreted within 45 min- utes by an expert to guide further treatment.18 If the noncontrast CT is negative for the presence of blood or other pathology that can explain the patient’s signs and symptoms, the clinician may consider other neuro- imaging studies that can support the diagnosis of TIA.2

Diffusion-weighted imaging by MRI (DWI) can reliably show in-

farcted brain tissue. The AHA and the American Association of Neurology recommend performing this study within 12 to 24 hours of TIA symp- tom onset.1,4 It’s the most sensitive imaging/diagnostic technique for identifying areas of infarcted brain tissue in small or perforator cerebral arterial territories, identifying the event as a stroke rather than a TIA.6,19 Because DWI is superior to noncon- trast CT as an imaging modality to identify infarcted brain tissue, it’s used to identify patients who are tissue- damage positive (stroke) or tissue- damage negative (TIA). Other options include perfusion-weighted MRI, which assesses capillary perfusion.20

DWI is recommended as the most sensitive diagnostic imaging study following TIA. Although parenchy- mal (brain tissue) imaging with MRI best shows the presence of stroke, an additional important consideration is cervical imaging to assess for carotid artery stenosis, which is a known cause of 15% to 20% of ischemic strokes.21,22

Additional imaging studies include carotid duplex ultrasonography, tran- scranial Doppler (TCD), and cerebral angiography.

An ECG can identify AF or an- other cardiac abnormality that could contribute to the TIA diagnosis. In some cases, a transthoracic or trans- esophageal echocardiogram may be indicated to identify cardiac sources for thrombi and emboli.4

Management strategies For many patients with ischemic stroke and precursor events such as TIA, the cause of signs and symptoms is unclear (either because none is found or because several mechanisms are coexisting); however, platelet ag- gregation with thrombus formation and subsequent embolization are thought to be the most common causative mechanisms.11 For this reason, patients are started or contin- ued on antiplatelet agents. Aspirin,

clopidogrel, and dipyridamole as monotherapy or as combined thera- pies are recommended by the AHA/ ASA and the American College of Chest Physicians as acceptable first-line drug interventions for prevention of secondary ischemic events.11,23 Oral antiplatelet agents are effective for reducing future ath- erothrombotic events in patients with stroke and TIA, as demonstrated and reported from the Early Use of Exist- ing Preventive Strategies for Stroke (EXPRESS) trial.11

Whether preexisting or new-onset, AF can lead to thrombus formation and stroke because of the prothrom- botic state, endothelial dysfunction, and blood stasis associated with this dysrhythmia.1,24 Anticoagulants are indicated for these patients with careful follow-up monitoring.24

The CHADS2 Risk Assessment is a validated clinical tool used to guide treatment and prevent TIA and isch- emic stroke in patients with nonval- vular AF. The acronym stands for these risk criteria: Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age 75 or older, Diabetes mellitus, and Stroke or TIA in the past. Each criterion is assigned one point except for stroke/ TIA in the past, which gets two points. The CHADS2 score is used to help clinicians decide whether pa- tients with nonvalvular AF should be started on antiplatelet monotherapy or combination therapy.25

Finally, risk factor management should be aggressively pursued. Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor. Dyslipidemia, as a risk factor for cerebral and cardiovascular disease leading to myocardial infarction, TIA, or stroke, should be assessed and treat- ed as indicated. Dual antiplatelet agents, including aspirin and clopi- dogrel, as well as aggressive risk factor modification primarily targeting BP < 140/90 mm Hg (less than 130/80 in patients with diabetes) and LDL < 70 mg/dL, were reported as

Copyright © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.

 

 

www.Nursing2014.com June l Nursing2014 l 35

effective at reducing risk for stroke or death associated with stenosis of greater than 70% in a major intracra- nial artery.26

Recommendations from the AHA include use of antihypertensives for all patients with a history of hyper- tension who’ve had an ischemic stroke or TIA. The AHA suggests that the target BP be individualized, but benefit has been associated with a 10/5 mm Hg reduction in systolic and diastolic values, respectively. Although no specific antihypertensive regimen is recommended due to indi- vidual patient characteristics, the AHA does suggest that a combination of a diuretic and an angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitor is useful.

Statin therapy has been shown to stabilize atherosclerotic plaque, de- crease intimal-medial thickness of the carotid arteries, and promote antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiplatelet effects. Results from the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial reported that 80 mg/day of atorvastatin in patients with a recent TIA or stroke reduced the in- cidence of fatal or nonfatal stroke by 16%.27

The AHA also recommends several other lifestyle modifications to re- duce the risk of TIA, ischemic stroke, and recurrent stroke. These include sodium restriction, weight loss if in- dicated, low-fat dairy products, a diet rich in consumption of fruits and vegetables, regular physical exercise, and limited alcohol consumption.8

Invasive procedures Identification of critical lesions such as atherosclerotic plaque and throm- bosis presents the opportunity for surgical or endovascular interventions before progression to stroke.28 Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been shown to reduce the risk of stroke by 18% in symptomatic pa- tients with a history of TIA or stroke who have 70% to 99% carotid artery

stenosis. CEA reduces the stroke risk by 8% in patients with carotid artery stenosis of 50% to 69%, as reported in both the North American Symp- tomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial and the European Carotid Surgery Trial.29,30

For patients who are at high surgical risk and younger than age 70, carotid artery stenting has been shown to be an effective alter- native to CEA if performed by expe- rienced providers.31,32 The decision is based on degree of surgical risk for endarterectomy.

Assessing Mr. R Mr. R’s signs and symptoms complete- ly resolve within an hour of onset, consistent with TIA. However, his ABCD2 score is 6, indicating that he’s at high risk for stroke within 2 days.

To further evaluate Mr. R’s brain tissue for evidence of ischemia or infarction, he undergoes an MRA, which reveals an 85% stenosis of his proximal cervical right internal ca- rotid artery (ICA).

Because Mr. R’s signs and symp- toms have resolved with no evidence of infarction, his transient neurologic deficits are attributable to a TIA. However, he’s at significant risk for a potentially severe and disabling or even fatal stroke.

Because of his significant carotid artery stenosis, Mr. R is admitted to the hospital for further evaluation and management. The nurse keeps the head of the bed flat, as tolerated, to increase cerebral perfusion to ischemic brain tissue, and adminis- ters isotonic I.V. fluids as prescribed to maintain euvolemia. One goal is to normalize his BP with antihypertensive medications while preserving cerebral perfusion. He’s also started on antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel. His target goal for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is less than 70 mg/dL, so the healthcare provider increases his statin dose. Two days later, Mr. R undergoes

successful and uncomplicated CEA of his right ICA.

Before discharge, Mr. R meets with a dietitian and a certified diabetes educator to review positive lifestyle choices. Patient education includes a review of the signs and symptoms of TIA/stroke and instruction in what to do if he experiences any of these signs and symptoms after discharge. CEA, drug therapy, and lifestyle modifications, along with regular follow-up by his healthcare provider, have given Mr. R the treatment and support necessary to reduce his risk of experiencing future neurologic events. ■

REFERENCES

1. Sonni S, Thaler DE. Transient ischemic attack: omen and opportunity. Cleve Clin J Med. 2013; 80(9):566-576.

2. Simmons BB, Cirignano B, Gadegbeku AB. Transient ischemic attack: part I. Diagnosis and evaluation. Am Fam Physician. 2012;86(6):521-526.

3. von Weitzel-Mudersbach P, Andersen G, Hundborg HH, Johnsen SP. Transient ischemic attack and minor stroke are the most common manifestations of acute cerebrovascular disease: a prospective, population-based study-the Aarhus TIA study. Neuroepidemiology. 2013;40(1):50-55.

4. Siket MS, Edlow JA. Transient ischemic attack: reviewing the evolution of the definition, diagnosis, risk stratification, and management for the emergency physician. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2012;30(3): 745-770.

5. Furie KL, Ay H. Etiology and clinical manifestations of transient ischemic attack. UpToDate. 2014. http: www.uptodate.com.

6. Yoo AJ, Chandra RV, Leslie-Mazwi TM. Catching strokes before they happen: the importance of early neuroimaging findings in TIA and minor ischemic stroke. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2012;10(7):847-850.

7. Wasserman J, Perry J, Dowlatshahi D, et al. Stratified, urgent care for transient ischemic attack results in low stroke rates. Stroke. 2010;41(11):2601-2605.

8. Furie KL, Kasner SE, Adams RJ, et al. Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/ American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2011;42(1): 227-276.

9. Gupta HV, Farrell AM, Mittal MK. Transient ischemic attacks: predictability of future ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack events. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2014;10:27-35.

10. Rhoney DH. Contemporary management of transient ischemic attack: role of the pharmacist. Pharmacotherapy. 2011;31(2):193-213.

11. Balucani C, Barlinn K, Zivanovic Z, Parnetti L, Silvestrini M, Alexandrov AV. Dual antiplatelet therapy in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke: a ghost from the past or a new frontier? Stroke Res Treat. 2010;2010:427418.

12. American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. TIA (transient ischemic attack). 2013.

Copyright © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.

 

 

36 l Nursing2014 l June www.Nursing2014.com

http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/ AboutStroke/TypesofStroke/TIA/TIA-Transient- Ischemic-Attack_UCM_310942_Article.jsp. 13. Hickey JV. The Clinical Practice of Neurological and Neurosurgical Nursing. 7th ed. Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014:513. 14. Ranta A, Dovey S, Weatherall M, O’Dea D. Efficacy and safety of a TIA/stroke electronic support tool (FASTEST) trial: study protocol. Implement Sci. 2012;7:107. 15. Fonarow GC, Saver JL, Smith EE, et al. Relationship of National Institutes of Health stroke scale to 30-day mortality in Medicare beneficiaries with acute ischemic stroke. J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1(1):42-50. 16. National Stroke Association. Transient ischemic attack (TIA): prognosis and key management considerations. http://www.stroke.org/site/DocServer/ NSA_ABCD2_tool.pdf?docID. 17. Giles MF, Albers GW, Amarenco P, et al. Early stroke risk and ABCD2 score performance in tissue- vs time-defined TIA: a multicenter study. Neurology. 2011;77(13):1222-1228. 18. Adams HP Jr, del Zoppo G, Alberts MJ, et al. AHA/ASA Guideline. Guidelines for the early management of adults with ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/ American Stroke Association Stroke Council, Clinical Cardiology Council, Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention Council, and the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease and Quality of Care Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Groups: The American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this guideline as an educational tool for neurologists. Stroke. 2007;38(5):1655-1711. 19. Al-Khaled M, Matthis C, Münte TF, Eggers J. Use of cranial CT to identify a new infarct in patients with a transient ischemic attack. Brain Behav. 2012;2(4):377-381.

20. Maas MB, Furie KL, Lev MH, et al. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score is poorly predictive of proximal occlusion in acute cerebral ischemia. Stroke. 2009;40(9):2988-2993.

21. Panagos PD. Transient ischemic attack (TIA): the initial diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Am J Emerg Med. 2012;30(5):794-799.

22. Kwee RM, Truijman MT, van Oostenbrugge RJ, et al. Longitudinal MRI study on the natural history of carotid artery plaques in symptomatic patients. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e42472.

23. Lackland DT, Elkind MS, D’Agostino R Sr, et al. Inclusion of stroke in cardiovascular risk prediction instruments: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2012;43(7):1998-2027.

24. Welles CC, Whooley MA, Na B, Ganz P, Schiller NB, Turakhia MP. The CHADS2 score predicts ischemic stroke in the absence of atrial fibrillation among subjects with coronary heart disease: data from the Heart and Soul Study. Am Heart J. 2011;162(3):555-561.

25. Heart Rhythm Society. CHADS2 risk assessment for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. 2011. www.HRonline.org.

26. Marks MP. Is there a future for endovascular treatment of intracranial atherosclerotic disease after Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke and Intracranial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS)? Stroke. 2012;43(2):580-584.

27. Huisa BN, Stemer AB, Zivin JA. Atorvastatin in stroke: a review of SPARCL and subgroup analysis. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2010;6:229-236.

28. Parmar JP, Rogers WJ, Mugler JP 3rd, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of carotid atherosclerotic plaque in clinically suspected acute transient ischemic attack and acute ischemic stroke. Circulation. 2010; 122(20):2031-2038.

29. King A, Serena J, Bornstein NM, Markus HS; ACES Investigators. Does impaired cerebrovascular reactivity predict stroke risk in asymptomatic carotid stenosis? A prospective substudy of the asymptomatic carotid emboli study. Stroke. 2011; 42(6):1550-1555.

30. Tholen AT, de Monyé C, Genders TS, et al. Suspected carotid artery stenosis: cost-effectiveness of CT angiography in work-up of patients with recent TIA or minor ischemic stroke. Radiology. 2010;256(2):585-597.

31. Gahremanpour A, Perin EC, Silva G. Carotid artery stenting versus endarterectomy: a systematic review. Tex Heart Inst J. 2012;39(4):474-487.

32. Rajamani K, Chaturvedi S. Stroke prevention- surgical and interventional approaches to carotid stenosis. Neurotherapeutics. 2011;8(3):503-514.

33 Hickey JV. The Clinical Practice of Neurological and Neurosurgical Nursing. 7th ed. Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014:63.

34. Hickey JV. The Clinical Practice of Neurological and Neurosurgical Nursing. 7th ed. Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014:523.

Vince Vacca is a clinical nurse educator in the neuroscience intensive care unit at Brigham & Women’s Hospital, Boston, Mass.

The author and planners have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

DOI-10.1097/01.NURSE.0000446625.09725.65

INSTRUCTIONS

Transient ischemic attack: Heed the warning

DISCOUNTS and CUSTOMER SERVICE • Send two or more tests in any nursing journal published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins together by mail, and deduct $0.95 from the price of each test. • We also offer CE accounts for hospitals and other healthcare facilities on nursingcenter. com. Call 1-800-787-8985 for details.

PROVIDER ACCREDITATION Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, publisher of Nursing2014 journal, will award 2.0 contact hours for this continuing nursing education activity.

Lippincott Williams & Wilkins is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center’s Commission on Accreditation.

Lippincott Williams & Wilkins is also an approved provider of continuing nursing education by the District of Columbia and Florida #50-1223. This activity is also provider approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 11749 for 2.0 contact hours.

Your certificate is valid in all states. The ANCC’s accreditation status of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Department of Continuing

Education refers only to its continuing nursing educational activities and does not imply Commission on Accreditation approval or endorsement of any commercial product.

TEST INSTRUCTIONS • To take the test online, go to our secure website at http://www.nursingcenter.com/ce/nursing. • On the print form, record your answers in the test answer section of the CE enrollment form on page 37. Each question has only one correct answer. You may make copies of these forms. • Complete the registration information and course evaluation. Mail the completed form and registration fee of $21.95 to: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, CE Group, 74 Brick Blvd., Bldg. 4, Suite 206, Brick, NJ 08723. We will mail your certificate in 4 to 6 weeks. For faster service, include a fax number and we will fax your certificate within 2 business days of receiving your enrollment form. • You will receive your CE certificate of earned contact hours and an answer key to review your results. There is no minimum passing grade. • Registration deadline is June 30, 2016.

For more than 82 additional continuing education articles related to neurologic topics, go to NursingCenter.com/CE. > <

Earn CE credit online: Go to http://www.nursingcenter.com/CE/nursing and receive a certifi cate within minutes.

 

Copyright © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.

 

Get professional assignment help cheaply

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Our essay writers are graduates with diplomas, bachelor, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college diploma. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer.

Why choose our academic writing service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

 

 

 

 

 

 

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
1
You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp! Via +1 817 953 0426

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.
  +1 (301) 710 0002           + 44 161 818 7126           [email protected]
  + 44 161 818 7126         [email protected]