Advanced Primary Care of Family paper

Advanced Primary Care of Family

1. The clinical interventions for patients unwilling to quit cigarette smoking include the use of the motivational treatments, such as brief motivational interventions that are founded on the tenets of Motivational Interviewing (MI). The four general principles of MI are “the expression of empathy, developing discrepancy, rolling with resistance, and supporting self-efficacy are used to tailor-make MI counseling strategies to suit each patient’s needs” (Fiore, et al. 2008). Consequently, MI is a patient-centered counseling intervention that was proven to be successful in intensifying future attempts of smokers to quit the habit.

2. The best strategies to help clients to quit smoking include counseling and clinical interventions. According to the guidelines, clinicians strongly advocate for the use of intensive counseling regarding tobacco dependence, in addition to medication treatments to their patients who are addicted to tobacco. In addition to these intervention methods, patients should be provided with problem-solving or skills training during counseling sessions will help patients to develop methods of overcoming the tobacco addiction on their own too (Fiore, et al. 2008). In this regard, the guideline also recommends that health systems, insurers, and purchasers should be in a position to collaborate with the clinicians to make these suggested intervention treatments affordable and accessible to the tobacco smokers.

3. The guideline indicates that there are particular smoking cessation suggestions for special populations like the elderly. The special recommendations for the elderly include implementing the “4 As,” which are “ask, advise, assist, and arrange to follow up in patients who are over fifty years old aged 50 and older” (Fiore, et al. 2008). In addition to this fact, advice from physicians, telephone counseling, support programs from peers, counseling, the nicotine patch, as well as self-help materials that are specifically tailored to meet the demands of the aged were proven to be effective in treating tobacco use in adults aged 50 years and older. In this instance, clinicians are advised to provide counseling interventions for adolescent smokers to encourage them to stop smoking or abstain from tobacco use (Fiore, et al. 2008). Therefore, intervention methods for special populations, such as adolescents, are quite different from that of other special populations, such as the elderly people.


Fiore M., C., Jaén, C., R., Baker,  T., B., et al. (2008). Treating tobacco use and dependence: 2008 update. Clinical Practice Guideline. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. Retrieved from

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